The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
In accordance with Federal and Departmental documents, a set of characteristics reflecting the timeliness of medical care including toxicological care and the degree of achievement of the planned result is given, the organization and the need for departmental control of quality and safety of medical activities, which consists of documentary and targeted audits, are presented. Experts assessing the quality of care in toxicology (time characteristic of the provision of medical services, consultation with specialists, classification of the diagnosis, timeliness of care, use of antidote therapy and chemical toxicological diagnostics) rely on the procedure, standards, protocols, recommendations and national guidance. The knowledge by doctors of various specialties of the criteria for providing assistance assessing the quality of the provision of medical services to patients with acute chemical trauma are necessary to improve their competencies and prevent unwanted complications.
Keywords: toxicology, quality of medical care
In recent years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to disability of patients and large financial costs of the treatment and rehabilitation. In this regard, the understanding of the environmental factors causing this disease, the development of adequate experimental models for studying its pathogenesis, and the search for strategies to prevent its development, as well as possible neuroprotective drugs, have fundamental scientific value. Although some researchers believe that genetic mutations and aging of the population are the main factors for the development of PD, a lot of studies have shown that PD may be caused by exposure to a number of toxins which enter the body from the environment. This review discusses the main toxic substances that cause the development of PD and, therefore, are used to model this disease in animals and cell cultures, as well as the mechanisms of action of neurotoxins, and the advantages and disadvantages of specific models.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, neurotoxins, pesticides, modeling, oxidative stress, environmental factors
The synthesis of biologically active coordination compounds and the design on their basis of effective pharmacological preparations is currently the promising area. This paper presents the results of the toxicological studies on digermanium and its complex derivatives. It should be noted that the positive medical properties of organometallic compounds of germanium are confirmed by numerous studies, therefore, the development of the methods of synthesis, as well as investigations of physicochemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds are at the center of attention.
Keywords: toxicological studies, coordination compounds of germanium, organometallic, ferrocene compounds, biological action
The possibility of blood lipid metabolism recovery in rats after intoxication with carbon tetrachloride using Kalifen® extract from viburnum and the comparison preparation Legalon® has been shown. The experiments were conducted on male white rats of the Wistar line in standard vivarium conditions. Animals were divided into 5 groups: 1st group - control; 2nd group - introduction of carbon tetrachloride for 4 days; 3rd - introduction of carbon tetrachloride for 4 days followed by cancellation within 7 days; 4th group - introduction of carbon tetrachloride for 4 days followed by introduction of Kalifen® for 7 days; 5th - introduction of carbon tetrachloride for 4 days followed by introduction of Legalon® for 7 days. It has been found that intoxication with carbon tetrachloride was accompanied by the development of severe hypercholesterolemia, as well as the increase in the content of the total fraction of lipoproteins of very low density with reducing the concentration of high density lipoproteins in the serum. There were a decrease in the main structural phospholipids and metabolically active fractions, an increase in the number of triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, and lysophospholipids. During the cancellation of carbon tetrachloride within 7 days lipid metabolism indicators did not recover, indicating that free-radical reactions occur even in the absence of the toxicant. The introduction of Kalifen® and Legalon® in animals under the conditions of the withdrawal of the toxicant contributed to the recovery of the studied parameters to control values, but the most pronounced effect has been manifested using Kalifen®.
Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, blood, lipoproteins, neutral lipids, phospholipids, Legalon®, Kalifen®
A study of the embryo- and fetotoxic effects registered in the antenatal and postnatal periods of development after the intragastric administration of Gestobutanoil in two doses (equitherapeutic and 10 times higher) has been performed. It has been found that the introduction of gestagen Gestobutanoil in both doses did not affect the body weight of pregnant animals, which continued to increase progressively during pregnancy. The embryotropic effect of gestagen was revealed to be dose-dependent. The introduction of gestagen in a dose of 0.25 mg / kg (calculated equitherapeutic dose) had no adverse effect on the development of the embryo and fetus of rats. The gestagen in a dose of 2.5 mg / kg (10 equitherapeutic dose) had a negative effect on the course of pregnancy, which has been manifested by a statistically significant increase in preimplantation death and total fetal mortality, as well as a statistically significant decrease in the number of fetuses. It has been shown that intragastric administration of Gestobutanoil in doses of 0.25 and 2.5 mg / kg to female rats from the 6th to the 19th days of pregnancy did not adversely affect the early development of the first generation offspring (postnatal mortality, body mass dynamics, and development of rats’ sensory-motor reflexes).
Keywords: gestagen, Gestobutanoil, tablets, rats’ pregnancy, embryotoxicity, offspring
The article presents the results of the experimental toxicological study of rats poisoned with uranyl acetate dihydrate (300 mg / kg body weight). The aim of this study was to develop methodological approaches to the early detection of acute toxic kidney damage on the basis of the dynamics of some biomarkers on 1, 3 and 7 days after nephrotoxin administration. For renal biomarkers reflecting the value of glomerular filtration rate (creatinine in the blood, cutoff 112,77 μmol/l) the mechanism of cell death (TPA in urine, cutoff of 5.28 IU/ml), degenerative changes and regeneration (KIM-1 in urine, cutoff of 0.28 ng/ml; at values above 8,2 ng/ml the lethal effect can be expected), the inflammatory infiltration and the induction of tissue reparation (MCP-1 in urine, cutoff 11,70 pg/ml, TGF-β1 in the urine, cutoff 34,33 pg/ml), the sensitivity and specificity have been determined. According to the sequence of urine level increase, the studied biomarkers can be arranged in the following series: early stage – TPA; stage of necrosis growth and leukocyte infiltration – KIM-1, MCP-1, creatinine; stage of deep necrotic changes – TGF-β1. The studied markers are of interest for use as diagnostic tools in determining the stage of kidney disease in nephrotoxic poisoning.
Keywords: acute kidney damage, uranium, biomarkers, rats, urine, creatinine, TPA, KIM-1, MCP-1, TGF-β, 1
The biogeochemical province of antimony and arsenic created in the area of massive sulphide deposits forms a level of their exchange in the biosphere that is different from the usual conditions. These elements along with a number of common properties of the semi-metals have significant features of biological action. The aim of the study was to assess the variability of the elemental composition of the liver tissues of white rats with oral intake of wastewater from the tailings of Komsomolsk gold mine (Kemerovo region) with a high content of antimony and arsenic. The objects of the study were wastewater from the slurry pits of Komsomolsk gold mine (Kemerovo region); liver tissue of white rats of the Wistar line, whole blood, urine, excrements. The contents of sulfur, chlorine, potassium, calcium, titanium, manganese, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, selenium, bromine, rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, arsenic, mercury, lead, antimony in the tissues of the liver, blood, urine, excrements before priming, after 3 weeks of priming and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks during the recovery period after priming have been determined. It has been established that combined oral 3 weeks intake of arsenic in a dose of 10,0-15,1 μg / kg / day and antimony in a dose of 4,2-6,1 μg / kg / day in male white rats of the Wistar line is accompanied by their accumulation in the liver and blood and the excretion with urine and excrements, the parameters of the toxicokinetics of arsenic indicate its absorption and elimination from the blood about the same rate, whereas in liver, the rate of elimination of arsenic is somewhat higher than the rate of absorption (t1/2 - 38 and 49 days and constants of elimination and absorption - 0.018 and 0.014, respectively). The predominance of elimination processes over absorption for antimony in the blood (t1/2 - 12 and 22 days, constants of elimination and absorption – 0.058 and 0.032, respectively) has been established.
Keywords: arsenic, antimony, slurry pits wastewaters, white rats, absorption constant, elimination constant
The article presents data on the mercury content in the muscles of perch Perca fluviatilis (L.) in four large reservoirs of the Vologda region (Kubenskoe and Vozhe lakes, river and lake (Lake Beloe) parts of the Sheksna reservoir) collected during the period 2007–2018. The metal concentration varied widely: from 0,01 mg/kg for perch from Lake Vozhe to 1,51 mg/kg for perch from Lake Kubenskoe. The highest percentage of fish with mercury content exceeding the established SanPiN 22.214.171.1248-01 norms (29,4%) was recorded in perch from Lake Kubenskoe, while the smallest – in fish from Lake Vozhe (5,4%). In fish from the Sheksna reservoir the content of the toxicant in muscles did not go beyond the accepted SanPiN 126.96.36.1998-01 norms. For all perch samples, a statistically significant positive correlation between mercury content and linear-weight characteristics, as well as fish age, was established.
Keywords: perch, mercury, accumulation, Vologda region