The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The article presents the analysis of domestic and foreign literature on toxic effects of ethanol in children, statistics and the results of forensic investigations of children with the presence of ethanol in blood, forensic chemical and chemical toxicological studies of biological fluids taken from children and adolescents aged from 0 to 17 years and examined in the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Moscow Region in 2003 – 2017, as well as clinical and statistical analysis of cases of ethanol poisoning in adolescents hospitalized in the toxicological department of intensive care of Moscow City Clinical Hospital № 5 in 2012 – 2015.
Keywords: toxic effect of ethanol in children
Cases of thallium poisonings are regularly reported in media. In the present work, the world experience in diagnostics and treatment of victims with thallium poisoning has been compiled and summarized, search for clinical guidelines for the diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation of patients has been carried out. The toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, as well as pathophysiological mechanisms of thallium influence on the body are described in detail. Toxic and lethal concentrations of poison in biological media, as well as its tropicity to various tissues and body systems were determined. The clinical picture depending on the timing of poisoning and the dose of poison is described in detail. Difficulties of the differential diagnosis are defined. The most interesting cases of criminal and household poisonings with various terms of establishment of the diagnosis, doses of poisoning and outcomes are presented.
Keywords: thallium, acute poisoning, thallium poisoning, alopecia, muscle pain
The Russian Federation is among the countries with a high burden of tuberculosis and the worsening epidemiological situation of HIV. In patients with HIV infection mortality from TB reaches 43-89%. The incidence of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection is 21-37 times higher than in people without HIV infection, and in some studies, the risk of developing tuberculosis in the early stages of HIV infection is 113 times higher. The aim of this work is to determine the toxic effect of different treatment regimens for tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection. Patients (total number 200) with tuberculosis and HIV infection with different treatment regimens for tuberculosis were examined. Clinical and laboratory data were studied. It was established that the first standard treatment of tuberculosis had a more pronounced toxic effect on patients, which was manifested by a decrease in appetite, nausea, in some cases vomiting and febrile feverish reaction; had a greater damaging effect on cell membranes, which led to an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. However, this regimen of chemotherapy contributes to a reduction in cough with mucus and mucopurulent sputum secretion, dyspnea with physical activity, pain in the chest during breathing that had a more pronounced therapeutic effect. Increase in the level of phosphatidylethanolamine can be considered as a proven marker of the toxic effect of tuberculosis treatment under the first standard regimen.
Keywords: tuberculosis, HIV infection, chemotherapy
While it is known that chronic lead intoxication in humans induces arterial hypertension and thus can lead to some secondary disturbances of heart function, possible effects of this intoxication on myocardium contractility has never been proved. In our experiments outbred male rats were repeatedly injected IP with sub-lethal doses of lead acetate 3 times a week during 5 weeks. They developed an explicit even if moderate lead intoxication characterized by typical hematological and some other features. Next day after the last injection the heart of each animal was excised, and trabecules and papillary muscles from right ventricle were used for modeling in vitro isometric regimes of contraction-relaxation cycle. Several well-established parameters of this model proved to be changed as compared with preparations taken from hearts of healthy control rats. Against the background of in vivo calcium treatment both systemic and cardiotoxic effects of lead were somewhat attenuated. For the first time we showed that at subchronic intoxication with lead the myocardial preparations in a wide range of lengths react with decrease in their time and speed parameters of isometric contraction while keeping its amplitude, and with decrease in the passive stiffness of the trabecules. Features of the reaction of different structures of the heart and the shifting of isomyosin ratio to the slow isoform were demonstrated. Mechanistic and toxicological inferences from the results obtained are discussed.
Keywords: lead intoxication, myocardial contractility, myosin isoforms
The article presents the results of determining the level of expression of genes encoding GABA receptor subunits GABRA1, GABRB2, and GABRG2 in the hippocampus of rats 24 hours after a single intramuscular administration of the antagonist of the chloro-ion channel of GABA receptor of kloflubicin in a dose of LD25, LD40, LD50, and LD75. It is revealed that kloflubicin has no influence on the relative level of GABRG2 gene expression. At the same time, the relative level of GABRA1 gene expression increases 7,5, 7,0, and 5,0 times after administration of kloflubicin in a dose of LD40, LD50, and LD75, respectively. The relative level of GABRB2 gene expression also increases 3,6 and 2,6 times after administration of kloflubicin in a dose of LD50 and LD75, respectively. It is assumed that increase in the level of gene expression of GABRA1 and GABRB2 in rats after administration of kloflubicin in doses above LD25 is a compensatory reaction of the body to the effect of physiologically active substance, and subunits encoded by these genes α1 and β2, respectively, are included in the mechanism of convulsive effect.
Keywords: kloflubicin, GABA receptor, expression level, gene, CABRA1, GABRB2, GABRG2
The article presents the analysis of modern data and the history of the development of normative documents regulating the content of arsenic in drinking water in Russia and other countries. The comparative characteristic of arsenic rationing in drinking water on a global scale and in the context of individual countries is given. The absence of uniform requirements for arsenic content in drinking water in the current regulatory documents of Russia is noted. In terms of harmonization of the regulatory framework with international requirements, it is recommended to bring SanPin 184.108.40.2064-01 «Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for the quality of water of centralized systems of drinking water supply. Quality control.» to GN 220.127.116.115-03 «Maximum permissible concentration of chemicals in water of water facilities used for commercial, household, and recreational purposes».
Keywords: arsenic, drinking water, hygienic standards, sanitary rules and norms, international requirements for the quality of drinking water
The modern approach for the reasonable choice of personal respiratory protective equipment (PPE) used in medical organizations when working with disinfectants is described. The discrepancy between the recommendations on choice of PPE listed in «precautions» section of the instructions for the use of disinfectants and PPE that can effectively protect human body from the harmful effects of chemicals contained in disinfectants is shown. Recommendations on choice of effective filters of PPE when working with various disinfectants are given.
Keywords: disinfectant, active substance, personal respiratory equipment, justification for the choice of personal respiratory equipment
The article presents the results of experimental toxicological and olfacto-odometric studies on maximal (onetime) allowable concentrations of α - and β-pinene in ambient air of urban and rural settlements.
Keywords: maximal (one-time) allowable concentration, toxicity, hazard, olfacto-odometric studies