The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Examinations of 406 patients aged from 60 to 93 years with acute poisoning with psychopharmacological medicines of varying severity were performed. The nomenclature of preparations that caused poisonings and combinations were analyzed. The concentrations of psychopharmacological preparations in blood and urine were monitored until they were absent in biological fluids. It was revealed that in patients of gerontological age more than half of poisonings occur as a result of combined intake of drugs of two or more pharmacological groups. It has been found that in patients older than 60 years with therapeutic concentrations of drugs in blood, symptoms of mild poisoning can be recorded in the case of use of one drug, and when combined intoxication is more severe. This category of persons is characterized by long-term excretion of psychopharmacological medicines from body during treatment, that influences the course of poisoning – can contribute to the fatal outcome as a result of prolonged intoxication and the development of life-threatening complications.
Keywords: acute poisoning, psychopharmacological medicines, concentrations, excretion, gerontology
Due to the widespread of smoking and accessories for it many teenagers in the world and in our country inhale gas for lighter refills (butane) – this phenomenon is called «sniffing». In some cases sudden death occurs at intensive actions. It is connected with the fact that butane is inhalation drug and sensitizes a myocardium to arrhythmogenic effects of catecholamines. In experiments on rats the arrhythmogenic and secondary ischemic effect at butane inhalation has been shown. Death occurs as a result of sudden arrhythmias.
Keywords: butane, inhalation drug, arrhythmia
The comprehensive study of allergenicity and immunotoxicity of dry extract of Potentilla alba L. has shown that the extract has no sensitizing effect in tests of the general systemic anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock) and active skin anaphylaxis conducted on Guinea pigs albinos, as well as in the reaction of delayed hypersensitivity in mice. In the study of immunotoxic properties, it has been found that the extract has a stimulating effect on the primary humoral immune response at a therapeutic dose of 3 mg / kg and has no influence on the effectors of the cellular immunity of experimental animals.
Keywords: Potentilla alba L., dry extract, allergenicity, immunotoxicity
On models of acute hypoxia (hemic and histotoxic) the activity of the new complex compound of 5-hydroxy-6- methyluracil with ascorbic acid was investigated. It has been found that the compound studied is comparable or superior to the reference medicines, 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil and ascorbic acid, has low toxicity at intragastric and intraperitoneal modes of administration to the mice. Based on the results of the research the Patent of the Russian Federation has been filed.
Keywords: hypoxia, complex compound of 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil with ascorbic acid, antihypoxic activity, toxicity
Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. In recent years, there have been concerns about the possible mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of this pesticide. In this connection, the study of genotoxic and carcinogenic properties of glyphosate and glyphosate-containing preparations has been resumed in a number of countries. In this study, the induction of micronucleation formation in vivo in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow of CD-1 mice was assessed by the action of three different technical glyphosate products entering the Russian Federation. It was found that the tested samples of technical products showed different cytogenetic activity, while only one of them caused a statistically significant, dose-dependent increase in the frequency of induction of micronuclei compared to the negative control. The analysis of the composition of the studied product samples showed that the cytogenetic activity may depend on the content of potentially mutagenic impurities, in particular formaldehyde. The obtained data are additional grounds for lowering the upper limit of formaldehyde content in technical products of glyphosate and also indicate the need to assess the genotoxic activity of analog pesticides entering the market of plant protection products.
Keywords: pesticides, glyphosate, genotoxic activity, micronuclear test
The effect of metals chlorides (cobalt, manganese, iron, lead, cadmium and copper) at wide range of concentrations on various aspects of the life of starfishes Asterias rubens has been studied. The experiments included a survival and behavioral responses (righting time) evaluation of starfishes during the seven-day exposure. Copper is the most toxic of the studied metals (half-lethal concentration LC50 = 0,062±0,01 mg/L, 96 hours of exposure), then toxicity decrease in the following order: lead (LC50 = 1,99±0,08 mg/L), cadmium (LC50 = 1,6±0,1 mg/L), cobalt (LC50 = 57,7±2,1 mg/L), manganese (LC50= 79,7±4,3 mg/L). Iron at studied concentrations did not influence the starfish’s survival. Copper, lead and cadmium led to a significant increase of the righting time after 96 hours of exposure. The toxic effects of these metals, except for copper, were revealed at higher concentration then Russian norms for surface waters.
Keywords: Asterias rubens, metals, toxicity, survival
The article presents information about the mercury content in the muscle tissue of the European grayling Thymallus thymallus (L.) in 11 rivers of the Vologda region (Tagazhma, Vozhega, Votcha, Kostyuga, Tiksna, Sheben’ga, Pyrnug, Zemtsovka, Yurmanga, Bol’shaya Rechka and Yontala) for the period of 2011–2015. The average content of toxicant ranged from 0,04 mg/kg in individuals of the river Sheben’ga up to 0,21 mg/kg in the rivers Yurmanga and Bol’shaya Rechka. Four fish noted an excess of the permissible level of sanitary and hygienic standards (SanPiN 220.127.116.118-01. 2.3.2.) for non-predatory fish species (0,3 mg/kg). Young grayling contains an average of 0,06–0,10 mg/kg mercury in muscle tissue, individuals five to six years old contain 0,26 and 0,27 mg/kg, respectively. A comparison of the level of mercury concentration in the muscle tissue of European grayling with that of other fish species showed that the Hg content does not go beyond the revealed background values for water bodies of the Vologda region.
Keywords: European grayling, mercury, toxicant, rivers, Vologda region
Functionally substituted amines containing amido and amino groups have a wide range of biological effects. Among them substances with various pharmacological activities were identified, and based on them a number of drugs were development. The paper presents toxicological characteristics of new substances and the relationship between the structure and pharmacological activity of aminoamides.
Keywords: aminoamides, antiarrhythmic activity, toxicity
Beauveria bassiana strain OPB-43 has no sensitizing properties, does not affect the cellular and humoral parts of the immune system, the intestinal microflora. The MPC of the strain in the air of working area is recommended at 5x104 mg/m3, in the atmospheric air of populated areas - 5x103 mg/m3.
Keywords: Beauveria bassiana strain OPB-43, sensitization, MPC