The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Observations of 153 patients admitted to the toxicological department of the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine after severe poisoning with psychopharmacological agents (36), cauterizing fluids (67) and neurotoxicants (drugs of the opium group, ethanol and psychopharmacological agents) (50) were summarized. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to assess the systemic response of the body to a chemical injury of varying severity and the treatment used. The data obtained shows that taking into account the complexity of the response of homeostasis indicators to various impacts the characteristics of the shifts to the manifestations of mentioned acute poisonings and treatment measures in the rehabilitation period with the use of cluster analysis should be evaluated using data that indicates changes in the strength of the bonds (proximity levels) both for individual indicators and for the values of intrasystemic connections in individual systems and between them. Cluster analysis provides an opportunity to obtain new information about the pathogenesis of the studied poisonings and also has predictive capabilities. Changes in the assessed indicators obtained by cluster analysis correspond to their shifts in the process of one dimensional analysis, positive results of treatment (reduction of treatment duration) and, therefore, are recommended for practical use.
Keywords: acute poisoning, nluster analysis, treatment, hemorheology, endotoxicosis, cellular component of toxemia
N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine, Healthcare Department of Moscow|, 129090, Moscow, Russian Federation Research and Applied Toxicology Center of Federal Medical and Biological Agency|, 129090, Moscow, Russian Federation Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, RF Ministry of Health|, 125993, Moscow, Russian Federation The problem of correction of disturbed homeostasis parameters in critical conditions, including acute poisoning, has revealed its increasing importance in recent years. In this respect, extracorporeal methods of detoxification (hemosorption, hemodialysis, etc.) and physio- and chemohemotherapy are quite effective. With the help of these methods positive changes in hemorheological, immune and other parameters are achieved, that increase significantly the overall results of treatment of patients. At the same time, targeted correction of disturbed homeostasis outside detoxification activities is still carried out mainly through infusion therapy. Along with this in recent years a growing number of scientific papers devoted to the correction of homeostatic disorders by enteral administration of special solutions in emergency conditions has appeared. However, this approach, although physiological and technically simple, has not yet been studied in clinical toxicology, and this fact encourages further research in this direction.
Keywords: acute poisoning, violations of homeostasis, detoxification, infusion therapy, enteral correction
Succinate containing compounds possess many types of biological activity and are used for the development of drugs with the target and complex action. This paper is devoted to some aspects of the mechanism of succinamides’ action in a dose of 100 mg/kg. We studied the influence of the compound with antidiabetic properties, -phenylethylamide of 2-oxysuccinanyl acid ( -PhEA-OSAA), and its metabolites such as 2-hydroxyphenylsuccinamide (2-HPhSA) and β-phenylethylsuccinamide ( -PhESA) on the marker indicators of energetic metabolism (EM), antioxidant system (AOS) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in subacute experiment on rats. Studies have shown that the action of -FEA-OSAKA on metabolic homeostasis is realized through stimulation of EM, reduction of intensity of NO-synthase metabolism and weakening of the AOS. The nature of the action of -FES and 2-GFS, taking into account the indicators of the state of homeostasis, largely coincides with β-FEA-OSAKA. It was found that the key links in the mechanism of toxic action of succinamides are the effect on antioxidant potential, NO metabolism and energy processes.
Keywords: succinamides, mechanism of biological action, metabolic homeostasis
The aim of the study was to assess the role of the cellular component of the stroma in liver regeneration after its toxic damage. The experimental model of toxic hepatitis caused by intraperitoneal administration of tetrachloromethane (CCl4) showed that regeneration processes in the liver on the 3rd day are manifested in an increase in binuclear hepatocytes, Ki-67 + cells and hepatocytes dividing by mitosis. The reaction of the stromal component is expressed in an increase in the number of CD45 +, mast and sinusoidal cells (SC). On the 7th day of the development of toxic hepatitis the hepatocyte alteration increases, that is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the mitotic index and the number of Ki-67 + cells. In the stromal component there is a decrease in the number of sinusoidal cells, CD45 + and a significant increase in mast cells with a high secretion granule content.
Keywords: tetrachloromethane, toxic hepatitis, liver, mast cells, sinusoidal cells
Three toxic metals-lead, copper and zinc - were measured in the biomass of the aquatic higher plants of Elodea densa. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used. Plants were incubated at elevated concentrations of three metals in the aqueous medium. This has led to a significant increase in lead content in plant biomass. Namely, the concentration of lead in biomass increased to 1567% compared to the background concentration of this element in the biomass in the control (the background concentration was taken as 100%). After incubation, the concentration of copper in the biomass was 594% of the background concentration. After similar incubation, zinc concentration was 133% of the background concentration. The results can be useful in the analysis of biological monitoring and water purification.
Keywords: lead, water pollution, heavy metals, copper, zinc, aquatic higher plants, macrophytes, metal accumulation
The article provides a review of the literature on the chemical leasing program implemented by UNIDO, the UN Department for industrial development. The advantages and perspectives of this business model in comparison with the classic version are analyzed on specific examples. It is shown that this model is implemented in the framework of the concept of sustainable development.
Keywords: chemical leasing, sustainable development, UNIDO
The article presents approaches to the assessment of toxicity, hazard and hygienic regulation and hazard of low stable substances - chlorosilanes: trimethylchlorosilane, trichlorosilane, methyltrichlorosilane. Their toxicity is determined by the main product of the transformation - hydrochloride. The presence of specific and long-term effects is associated with the toxic properties of transformation products. Control of these substances in the air of the working area and in the objects of human environment is recommended to be carried out on the product of transformation - hydrochloride.
Keywords: transformation, toxicity, substance, hydrochloride