The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The every-day and combat activities of military personnel are associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals. In this regard, a qualitative training in toxicology of military physicians is needed to make them ready to carry out medical protection measures for the personnel of the troops and the civil population from damaging effects of numerous factors of chemical nature, both in peacetime and in wartime. The study of military toxicology is an important part of military medical education in the military training center at the First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov. It is shown that the training system in toxicology that existed before 2014 did not allow a full-fledged mastering of educational material. In connection with this, a new curriculum was developed, including up-to-date information on military toxicology and medical protection, for which 108 academic hours are allocated in the military training center. The distribution of the toxicology issues teaching time by topics and types of training sessions is presented, characteristics of the main control options for the knowledge gained are shown. Training in toxicology is carried out using new educational technologies, including the educational portal, as well as modern tutorials and textbooks, including the textbook «Toxicology and Medical Protection» (2016). Graduates from the military training center effectively use the knowledge and skills gained in toxicology during their further practical activities in the troops.
Keywords: toxicology, chemical safety, teaching, military training, military physicians, Educational military center, N.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University
The need for basic training in toxicology of students of pharmaceutical universities and departments of toxicology is justified. The experience of teaching toxicology and medical protection to students of the St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy was analyzed. Academic teaching staff were trained in the methodology of teaching toxicology, and a participated in the preparation of the all-Russian textbook «Toxicology and Medical Protection» (2016) and three tutorials for students of medical and pharmaceutical universities. It is shown that in accordance with the current Federal State Educational Standard of the third generation, toxicology issues are included in the curriculum of a complex discipline «Life Safety. Emergency Medicine» as a stand-alone module. Students study toxicology in the fifth year having received a good basic training in medical, biological, and professional disciplines in previous years. For realization of cognitive and creative activity of students in the educational process, modern educational technologies are used which make it possible to improve the quality of teaching and to use school time more efficiently. The potential of using algorithmic workbooks, interactive forms of training, test control, case-method for facilitating the perception of theoretical knowledge and improving the quality of practical skills development is demonstrated. Results of the anonymous questionnaire survey, in which 153 of 198 students who studied toxicology and medical protection in the autumn semester of the 2017/2018 academic year participated, are reported. It was shown that more than 80% of the students surveyed are convinced of the need to study toxicology during the undergraduate training of specialists of pharmaceutical profile and positively assessed the methodology of teaching toxicology that is performed at the St. Petersburg State Chemical Pharmaceutical Academy.
Keywords: toxicology, pharmaceutical education, students, new educational technologies, case-method
Observations of 153 patients admitted to the rehabilitation toxicological department of the Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine after severe poisoning with psychopharmacological agents (36), cauterizing fluids (67) and neurotoxicants (drugs of the opium group, ethanol and psychopharmacological agents) (50) were summarized. To assess the systemic response of the body to a chemical injury of varying severity and the treatment used, the factor analysis method was used. For all of the estimated pathological conditions, high hemorrheological abnormalities are of high informational importance, especially during poisoning with psychopharmacological agents. The factor of endotoxicosis also has a noticeable effect, to the greatest extent during poisoning with psychopharmacological agents and cauterizing fluids. During the development of encephalopathy, the importance of blood viscosity, apoptosis and immune status is of informative significance. Factor analysis makes it possible to obtain new information on the pathogenesis of the studied poisonings. The data on the information value of the indicators used, obtained by the factor analysis, is in accordance with positive clinical results (shortening the hospitalization of patients), and therefore are recommended for practical use.
Keywords: Acute poisoning, factor analysis, treatment, hemorheology, endotoxicosis, cellular component of toxemia
The aim of the work is to assess the degree of influence of chronic intoxication with copper-zinc pyrite ore on the basis of changes in the leukocytogram and cellular composition of the rat blood. On the model of experimental intoxication of outbred white rats it was shown that a chronic excessive intake of heavy metals into the body from copper-zinc pyrite ore for 3 months leads to an increased level of cadmium, copper, iron and decreased content of zinc, cobalt in blood, lowers the level of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, membrane resistance of blood erythrocytes, changes the leukocyte formula.
Keywords: copper-zinc pyrite ore, heavy metals, rats, erythrocytes, leukocyte formula
A study was made on toxicity and hazards of 16 chladons which are representatives of various halogen derivatives of saturated hydrocarbons (fluorine derivatives of methane, ethane, propane, butane). It is shown that in terms of acute toxicity parameters, the studied chladons refer to low-toxic and low-risk substances (hazard class 4 according to GOST 12.1.007). The least toxic are fully fluorinated hydrocarbons: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, octafluoropropane, decafluorobutane.` In the clinical picture of acute poisoning, signs of a narcotic effect prevail. Limit values Limac were determined for fluorocarbons in the range of 750-180 mg/l, for mixed fluorochlorinated hydrocarbons- up to 100 mg / l (45, 80 mg/l), for fluoriodohydrocarbns (pentafluoriodoethane) 10.5 mg/l. The main criteria tests were indicators of the state of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Long-term exposure to the compounds studied (chladons Nos. 32, 125, 227, 218, 31-10) caused marked changes in the functional state of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, peripheral blood composition and metabolic processes. Hygiene standards for most tested chladons in the workplace air (MAC workplace) are approved at the level of 3000 mg/m3, hazard class 4;,vapors; in the atmospheric air of residential areas, the MAC. average daily of 10 (20) mg/m3 is set, and 100 mg/m3 for maximum single concentration (MAC.maximum single), reflective -resorptive effect, hazard class 4.
Keywords: chladon, toxicity, hazard, inhalation, hygiene standards
Results of experimental studies are reported on the substantiation of the maximum single permissible concentration (MAC maximum single) of volatile organic compounds, formed during a high temperature processing of wood in chipboard production (based on tererpene hydrocarbons), in the atmospheric air of residential areas at the level of 0.05 mg/m3. The magnitude was established on the basis of olfacto-odorimetry taking into account new approaches to the determination of «obsessive» odor thresholds as a limiting criterion for the MAC maximum single justification in accordance with the international practice of setting odor limits and our home experience gained in the standardization of odorous substances in the ambient air. The selection of priority substances for the control of the designed value (α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, camphene) was based on the analysis results of the composition of releases from a high temperature processing of wood and atmospheric air in the enterprise location area.
Keywords: maximal (one-time) allowable concentration, terpene hydrocarbons, high temperature treatment of wood, «undefined» odour, «obsessive» odour, olfacto-odorimetry
Modern directions of activities are reported in the frame of international agreements in chemical safety-The Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal, the Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade, the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants. Taking into account that at the national level, especially in small-size countries, the same bodies represent their countries in international conventions, in 2011 under UNEP, a BRS convention (unified secretariat) was set up to improve coordination of Conventions, to raise the level of their cooperation and at the same time to lower expenses of their activities by setting up common services such as administration support, joimt clearing house, planning and holding meetings of all levels, training, providing technical assistance etc. The three conventions deal with a great number of the same substances in accordance with their objectives and area of activities which requires a deep coordination in the frame of Conventions both at the international and national levels. All three Conventions preserve their full independence but conducting a policy of synenergy that means collaboration and deep coordination,
Keywords: Keyword: safety, chemical substances, wastes, conventions