The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
When examining the population exposed to organic and inorganic compounds of mercury, a comprehensive approach is proposed, including chemical monitoring of environmental objects, biological monitoring, clinical examination of persons exposed to mercury, identification of high-risk groups.
Keywords: danger of organic and inorganic mercury compounds, chemical and biological monitoring
The article presents results of assessing data on morbidity attributable to chronic alcoholism and drug addiction among teenagers over Russia, in federal districts and subjects of the Russian Federation over 2011-2915. The data are reported by the Federal Information Fund of Socio-Hygienic Monitoring, set up by the Federal Hygienic and Epidemiological Center of Rospotrebnadzor In the Russian Federation in 2015the incidence of the of alcohol dependence syndrome(alcoholism) in adolescents aged of 15to 17years was 2.98per 100thousand ; this value for adolescents of the same age was 5.6g.b. 5.65 in 2014, 3.74in 2013, 5.13in 2012, 9.50in 2011). As compared with 2011, in 2015the incidence of alcohol dependence among adolescents significantly decreased by 3.2-fold((P <0.0001). At the same time in the Russian Federation in 2015the addiction syndrome among adolescent drug users aged of 15-17was 9.17per 100,000adolescents and during the analyzed period an authentic 2-fol d increase of that indicator was observed.(P <0.0001).
Keywords: alcoholism, drug addiction, adolescents, subjects of the Russian Feration
An evaluation of the inosine glycil-cysteinyl-glutamate disodium efficacy as a means for therapy of toxic alcoholinduced liver cirrhosis was performed in experiments on outbred white rats. Experimental modeling of liver cirrhosis was carried out by administrating intragastrically to rats two hepatotoxicants– 40% ethanol at a dose of 3 g/kg, every other day for three weeks and 1% dimethylnitrosamine at a dose of 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally the first 4 days per week. Inosine glycyl-cysteinyl-glutamate disodium was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily for three weeks; application of the drug was started after the administration of hepatotoxicants was ended and clinical and morphological indicators of toxic liver cirrhosis were proved. Evaluation of the efficiency of inosine glycyl-cysteinyl-glutamate disodium as a therapeutic means for alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis was performed by morphological, histological and biochemical methods. It was found out that a combined action of ethanol and dimethylnitrosamine led to the development of toxic liver cirrhosis, which manifested by an increase in the rats body weight , characteristic morphological and histological changes in liver tissues, increased activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin level, and an increase in the blood plasma of concentration of interleukin-1β, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. A course administration of inosine glycyl-cysteinyl-glutamate disodium contributed to a decrease in the volume of connective tissue in the liver of animals, decrease in the activity of hepatic enzymes, decrease in the level of total bilirubin and the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood plasma. Data obtained show the efficacy of inosine glycyl-cysteinyl-glutamate disodium as a means for treating alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis.
Keywords: ethanol, dimethylnitrosamine, poisoning, liver cirrhosis, treatment, inosine, oxidized glutathione
Toxicological studies were conducted on impact of diisononyl phthalate (DINP) on the reproductive system of white vrats..In experiments, A. Dinerman,’s scheme was applied which allows recording embryotropic and teratogenic effects taking into account the dynamics of the development of offspring in the postnatal period. The presence of anomalies in the development of embryos internal organs was determined by the sagittal section method according to W. Wilson. It was found out that intragastric administration of the test compound to females during the pregnancy period at doses of 100, 1000 and 10,000 mg/kg initiated external and internal malformations in embryos. The exposure level of 10,000 mg/kg is characterized by increased rate of total post implantation and embryonic mortality, multiple embryonic developmental defects. At the same time, there were no significant changes in the postnatal development of the offspring compared to the control. In the experiment it was established that the dose of 10 mg/kg is the most inactive dose of DINP at which no signs of teratogenic and embryotropic actions were revealed.
Keywords: diisononyl phthalate, toxicity, embryotoxicity, teratogenicity
Cellular in vitro test systems, which allow to determine apoptosis activation at different concentrations of sulfur mustard, were proposed. The efficiency of these test systems was evaluated by the action of N-acetylcysteine. As indicators of toxic effect, were evaluated an integral cytotoxicity and activation of the following targets: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1), caspase-3, caspase-9, transcription factor p53 and other markers of apoptosis in human SH-SY5Y cells extracts after sulfur mustard and sulfur mustard with N-acetylcysteine exposure. We can distinguished the following main target of sulfur mustard toxic action on the cells: caspase-3, caspase-9, PARP1 and p53 transcription factor, which in this system was the primary target and was activated after 6 h toxicant exposure. The active forms of enzymes caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP1 significantly accumulate in cells after 24 h toxicant exposure.
Keywords: sulfur mustard, N-acetylcysteine, apoptosis, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cellular test systems
Comparative and combined damaging actions of NiO and Mn3O4 anoparticles were estimated on cultures of different established human cell lines. It was found out that the addition of the fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the culture media ,used in the investigation, renders NiO-NPs and, to even a greater extent, Mn3O4-NPs exponentially soluble while without FBS their dissolution was extremely low. Along with it, sedimentation of those MeO-NPs caused by their aggregation noticeably slowed down in the presence of the same FBS. The dependence of cell damage on the MeO-NPs concentration was found out, at a higher cytotoxicity of Mn3O4-NP as compared to NiO-NP. Thus, comparative assessment of NPs non-specific toxicity previously obtained in animal experiments was reproduced in the «in vitro» tests. However, with respect to manganese-specific brain damage «in vivo» discovered previously in sub-chronic intoxication with the same MeO-NPs, the present «in vitro» experiment on neurons only showed a certain enhancing effect of Mn3O4-NP on the action of NiO-NP, but the role of NiO-NP in the combination prevailed.
Keywords: manganese oxide, nickel oxide, nanoparticles, in vitro toxicity
Toxicity and hazard assessment of the mixture of saturated hydrocarbons C6-C10 (hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane)) at a single and chronic exposure was PERFORMED in animal experiments. It was shown that in terms of acute toxicity, the mixture is low hazard, exhibits moderate irritant effect on skin and eye mucous membrane and shows a slight dermal resorptive effect. The threshold limit concentration for a single inhalation exposure (Limac) as estimate4d by the resorptive effect is 5250±mg/m3 At a long 90 day continuous exposure, neuro-, hepato- and embryo toxicity was revealed at a concentration of 160mg/m3. The threshold limit concentration for chronic exposure (Limch) was estimated as 31.4 mg/ m3 and no effect concentration as 5.2 mg/m3. The threshold limit concentration of the mixtu re based on reflex action was estimated on a level of 280 mg/m3. Based on the investigations outcome, the mixture of saturated hydrocarbons C6-C10 is referred to hazard class 3. Maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) in the atmospheric air of residential areas were substantiated: MAC average daily based on resorptive effect equals to 5 mg/m3; MAC maximum single based on reflex action equals to 50 mg/m3.
Keywords: saturated hydrocarbons, mixture, toxicity, hazard, inhalation, threshold limit concentration, atmospheric air
The article describes the principles of «Green Chemistry» and the goals and objectives of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management. «Green» chemistry is one of the most effective safety management tools. The principles of «Green Chemistry» and SAICM are reflected in the legislative and regulatory acts of many countries, including the Russian Federation and the Eurasian Economic Union. The performed analysis of issues in chemical safety and approaches to safe management of chemicals showed identity of goals of SAICM and Green Chemistry and prospects of the use of the Green Chemistry principles in solving issues in chemical safety.
Keywords: safety, chemical substance, toxicity