The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
An outpatient examination of 530 employees engaged in work with chemical weapons related to organophosphorus compounds at chemically hazardous facilities was carried out. Risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases of atherogenic etiology among personnel of the facilities were studied in relation to the type of work performed using statistical analysis methods. When assessing the lipidogram, a high incidence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in a group of personnel involved in the storage of chemical weapons was found out in comparison with a group of people engaged in the destruction and control of chemical weapons (73.1 vs 61.2 vs 59.6%, p <0. 05), as well as an increase in the level of low-density lipoproteins (4.2 [3.9-4.5] vs 3.8 [3.6-4.0] vs 3.9 [3.7-4, 0] mmol / l, p <0.05). A mathematical model of the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia in young male employees of chemically dangerous objects was elaborated based on arterial pressure indices, nutritional status and nature of their professional activities. A type of contact with organophosphorus compounds may be considered as an additional (independent) risk factor for the development of atherogenic pathology. The development of atherogenic dyslipidemia in young age employees of chemically dangerous objects is significantly affected by the type of contact with the toxicant agent, visceral obesity and increased blood pressure. The contact with organophosphorus compounds shall be considered as independent (additional) risk factor for diseases caused by atherosclerosis, they must be taken into account and level down at their primary prevention.
Keywords: risk factors, atherosclerosis, atherogenic pathology, chemically dangerous objects, chemical weapon, duration of contact with toxicant agents, organophosphorus compounds, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity
A comparative analysis of influence of fentanyl, dexmedetomidine and their combination on physical activity tolerance, electrocardiogram indexes and integral tolerance rates (therapeutic indices range) was conducted on an experimental model of cardiac failure induced by daily subcutaneous injections of 0.4 mg/kg adrenaline hydrochloride over 7 days. The findings were also confirmed by histomorphologic validation. In a suggested model of impaired cardial function, the analgesic activity and toxicity of fentanyl, dexmedetomidine and their combination were assessed in comparison with intact animals. It was shown that on the background of cardiac pathology, 13 to 25% decrease of average lethal doses was observed for each of the drugs under consideration. At the same time when drugs were administered in combination, an average aanalgetic dose did not change unlike single-drug analgesia.
Keywords: fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, cardiovascular failure, coronary heart disease
Assessment of cumulative health risks associated with the widely observed combined effects of two or more metals and their compounds to the organism has the toxicology of mixtures as its scientific basis although there is no full match between such assessment and this basis though some of the contradictions between them are of a fundamental nature. This state of things may be explained not only by simplifications characteristic of the generally recognized methodology of risk assessment but also by extreme complexity of the theory of combined toxicity, the most essential issues of which are considered by authors on the basis of literary and, mostly, their own previously published data.
Keywords: toxic metals, typology of combined toxicity, mathematical modeling, health risk assessment
Experimental studies of toxicity and hazard assessment of a mixture of С1-С5 saturated hydrocarbons as pollutants of atmospheric air were performed. It was shown that the mixture exhibits a low toxicity at a single exposure and does not irritate skin and eye mucous membranes. The Limac of the С1-С5 mixture was set at 25300 and 3100 mg/ m3 by the resorptive and reflex effects respectively. After 90-day chronic continuous exposure to the mixture, symptoms of chronic intoxication, specifically functional disorders in the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems and in biochemical processes, were revealed. The threshold concentration of the mixture was estimated at 255.7 mg/m3 . The experimental results were used to substantiate hygiene regulatory standards (MAC average day dose, and MAC maximum one-time dose) and hazard class for the mixture of С1-С5 saturated hydrocarbons in the atmospheric air of residential areas.
Keywords: saturated hydrocarbons, mixture, toxicity, hazard, hygiene regulatory standards, odorimetry, maximum allowable concentration (MAC)
Results of an experimental toxicological study on anti-tubercular drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin at their combined administration are reported . It made it possible to establish antagonistic effect of rifampicin to lethal doses of isoniazid and to elicit a decrease in toxicity of the of isoniazid and rifampicin combination when administrated at the evening time..
Keywords: anti-tubercular drug, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, chronobiology, chronobiological rhythms, sound chemotherapy, experimental research
The paper presents an overview of the main methodological approaches in experimental standardization of odorants (or mixtures of odorants) in the ambient air according to «obsessive» odor inadmissibility as a limiting criterion for justification of Maximum allowable concentration (MAC maximum one time dose) . It is shown that the developed procedure of establishing a permissible content of those substances is based on estimating the relationship «concentration – odor sensation probability of different intensity» (olfactory-odorimetry), using a common scoring of smell intensity and modern olfactometry equipment. Justified normative values are harmonized with international criteria for air quality including epidemiological studies-based levels established for odors with various qualitative characteristics. Their implementation will ensure the protection of the population from «obsessive» odor.
Keywords: odorous substances, power (intensity) of odor, «unspecified» odor «obsessive» odor, olfactoryodorimetry studies, dynamic olfactometer
Etiology and pathogenesis current concepts of the intermediate syndrome in cases of poisoning with anticholinesterase compounds (organophosphorus compounds, carbamates) are considered in the review. Characteristics of the syndrome clinical picture and its diagnostics methods using electromyography are presented.. Data on the experience of broadly used basic antidotal agents (cholinesterase reactivators, M – and N-cholinoreceptors) and pathogenic therapy of poisonings were analyzed and summarized. To solve the problem, priority research directions were determined, such as search for formation mechanisms of the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker and development of methods for prophylaxis and therapy using drugs targeting N-cholinoreceptors.
Keywords: organophosphorus compounds, intermediate syndrome, electromyography, diagnostics, therapy
The use of nanoparticles covers new spheres of production every year. Their release into the environment is possible at any stage of their lifespan: from the manufacturing process to the utilization in the final product; therefore potential risks they pose for various environmental objects should be evaluated. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of technogenic nanoparticles on Chlorella vulgaris growth and photosynthetic activity. Toxic properties of three types of nanoparticles TiO2 with a size of 100 to 190 nm, SiO2 with dimensions of 10-15 nm and 100-120 nm have been studied. Chlorella vulgaris Beijer alga was used as test organism. The evaluation of nanoparticles toxicity was based on changes in the relative delayed fluorescence index (RDFI), which characterizes the photosynthetic activity of microalgae. The effect on the growth of the test culture was determined from the optical density (OD) of the algal suspension. It was found that the TiO2 nanoparticles slightly reduced the growth and activity of the cell photosynthetic apparatus. Large particles of SiO2 proved to be more toxic than smaller ones. For nanoparticles of 100-120 nm size , the EC50 value according to the OD index was 8 mg/dm3, while the particles measuring 10-15 nm did not show a significant effect on the growth of the culture. Large SiO2 particles also appeared more toxic than small particles, judging by RDFI parameter.
Keywords: nanoparticles, nanotoxicity, Chlorella vulgaris, biotesting, delayed fluorescence of chlorophyll, optical density