The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Addressing emerging chemical safety issues requires the presence of qualified professionals in the country. Currently, a speciality «toxicology» is included in the range of medical disciplines but it only applies to clinical toxicologists. Physicians of preventive health profile, who are actually involved in toxicity and hazards assessment of chemicals, prevention and risk assessment of their impact on human health and human environment are not thought of as toxicologists in accordance with the existing legal and regulatory framework. The article also raises questions about the necessity of teaching preventive toxicology at the various stages of continuous medical education.
Keywords: toxicology, education
The article presents evaluation results of data of toxicological monitoring conducted by the Federal Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor over the period of 2011-2015. In the Russian Federation during the analyzed period, 838,169 cases of acute poisonings of chemical etiology were registered, that is to say 111.5 to 120.8 cases per 100 thousand population, 17.2% of them were lethal. There is a trend of increase in acute poisonings of chemical etiology among adolescents. The main causes of acute chemical poisoning were alcoholcontaining products (32.1%).
Keywords: acute poisonings of chemical etiology, alcohol and its fake products, toxicological monitoring
Based on the analysis of reports of the Department for treatment of acute poisonings at the N.V. Sklifosovskiy Research Institute of Emergency Medicine from 2009 to 2014 and medical records of in-patients hospitalized during that period, the structure of acute poisoning in elderly and senile patients was investigated. The share of patients of the senior age groups averages 12.5% of all patients. The most frequent reason for poisoning is a suicide attempt-71.9%. Psychopharmacological (46.5%) and cardiotropic (13.6%,) medications take the key place in poisonings as well as combined poisonings. The lethality analysis revealed its growth with increase in age of victims. One of the main causes of lethal outcomes is pneumonia.
Keywords: acute poisonings, elderly and senile patients, lethality
Results of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of 58 victims with chemical burns of airways are reported. They made 16.9% of observations of all patients admitted to hospital with poisonings by cauterizing substances. Endoscopic and X-ray semiotics of airways chemical burns is reported. The incidence and severity of airways lesions in relation to the degree of esophagus chemical burns were assessed. It is established that burn laryngotracheo bronchitis became complicated by the development of pneumonia in 77.6% of observations , and in 6.9% by cicatricial narrowing of the trachea and bronchi. Localization and the development speed of infiltrative changes in lungs allow to assume that the aspiration of cauterizing liquids plays the key role in the pneumonia genesis. The therapeutic bronchoscopy included toilet bronchoscopy of the trachea bronchial tree with 0.01% solution of dioxydin and laser photo stimulation with a red- range low-energy laser. Therapeutic sessions were carried out 3 times a week. From 1 to 10 sessions were performed depending on the severity of airways chemical burns. Convalescence of all patients was achieved.
Keywords: chemical burn, airways, bronchoscopy, pneumonia
Results of practical researches in the working area of mining, rubber and chemical industries in respect to the nanoscale particles content are reported. For reference, the air of the workplace of management and white-collars employees not involved in the production process was investigated. Research results are shown in the form of nanoparticles number concentration using peak particle distribution in cm3 and nanosize particles range, which accounts for the peak distribution, nm. For each kind of production. jobs with the highest possible characteristics in respect to the workplace to be compared to were set. Investigations reported can be used in assessing working conditions and occupational risks of exposure to nanomaterials in production processes as well as in manufacturing processes with nanoparticles formotion.
Keywords: nanoparticles, airborne substances, occupational air, diffusion aerosol spectrometer, nanoscale range, ultrafine particles
Bioaccumulation and morphofunctional disorders induced by metal-containing nanoparticles were investigated on the example of potentially hazardous to health nanodispersed manganese and nickel oxides under various exposition conditions (particles size of 15-29 and 17-45 nanometers respectively). As a comparison, micro dimensional analogs which particles size was 300- to 1300- fold bigger were used. It was established that metalcontaining nanoparticles at intragastric and inhalation exposure had higher penetration power and low removal efficiency from the organism (14- to 39-fold lower); the profile of «critical» organs includes brain, liver, spleen, lungs; metal-containing NPs cause functional disorders in critical systems and target organs (in the form of disrupted balance in indicators of oxidative and antioxidant processes and neurotransmitters under effect of nano dispersed MnO), these disorders having dose-dependent character. A great degree of expressiveness of morphological changes in the blood circulatory system, macrophagal and lymphoid systems, and also the presence of changes in the tissue of liver, brain and heart not revealed under exposition to microdespersed analogs prove a big damaging ability of metal-containing nanoparticles and dependence of expressiveness degree of pathological process on the size of particles.
Keywords: metal-containing nanoparticles, potential hazard, exposition, experimental study, bioaccumulation, morphofunctional changes
A high bactericidal activity of silver nanoparticles (NHs) suggests the possibility of their use in the preparation of drinking water. On the example of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in micronucleus test with cytochalasin B, effects of genome instability were investigated in a concentration range of 0.005-5.0 mg / l of silver nanoparticles (NHs) with a size of 14.3 ± 0.2 nm (Ag14) and 100.0 ± 11.0 nm (AG100), stabilized with gum acacia and for comparison , those of Ag2SO4 (silver ions). in the same range of concentrations . All substances were suspended or dissolved in drinking water.The results showed that the NPs had genotoxic and cytotoxic effects that made them unsuitable to improve the quality of drinking water. Effects of genome instability determined by the frequency of dividing cells with micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges, as well as inhibition of mitotic activity, decrease of proliferative activity and increasing duration of the cell cycle came down in series of Ag2SO4 >> Ag100 >> Ag14. However, frequency rise of asymmetric 3-nucleated cells due to aneuploidy induction was the most characteristic of Ag14 particles.
Keywords: silver nanoparticles, micronucleus test with cytochalasin B, human blood cells, genome instability, aneuploidy
Behavioral responses in experimental animals were studied in an experiment after a single uptake of aqueous solution of mixed depleted uranium oxide using standard techniques. The experimental research showed pronounced integrative functions disorders in the rodents brain which are associated with impacts of uranium compounds on structures providing coordination of motor acts, on conditioned reflex activity as well as anxiety-phobic and emotional state of animals. Temporary neurotoxic effects of depleted uranium may be a result of both direct oxidant activity impact of uranium compounds on neurons and consequence of their effect on the neurotransmitter metabolism .
Keywords: depleted uranium, incorporation, brain, behavioral reaction
A comparative investigation of the esterase profiles of blood of mice of both genders exposed to various doses of 2-(o-crezyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide (CBDP) was made an hour after its percutaneous injection to animals. A lesser amount of esterase in males blood made them more susceptible to CBDP action as compared to females. It was shown that CBDP equally inhibits the activity of carboxyl esterase and butyryl choline esterase in blood serum of both male and female mice. Statistically significant differences in inhibition degree of enzymes between males and females were found out and therefore it is not recommended to use mixed groups of animals when performing testing of serine esterase inhibitors.
Keywords: 2-(o-crezyl)-4H-1, 3, 2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide, poisoning, serine esterase, inhibitor, mice, gender differences
Changes in survival, fertility and metabolic activity in two generations of crustacean Daphnia magna in the piperonyl butoxide medium (PBO) were analyzed in concentrations of 50 to 800 ug/ml in a 21 day experiment in each generation. Metabolism disorders were evaluated using the MTT-assay traditionally applied in vitro to analyze cytotoxicity of medications. The MTT-assay shows in an integral way the amount of oxygen active forms, inactivation of mitochondrial oxidases, ratio of living and dead cells and function of antioxidant enzymes. It was found out that in the first generation, the PBO concentration of 353 ug/l is semi-lethal to Daphnia fertility and to the Daphnia survival it is 650 ug/l. In the second generation the toxic concentration is two-fold lower and amounts to 194 ug/l to fertility and to 200 ug/l to survival. It was revealed that PBO poses the cytotoxic effect on Daphnia.
Keywords: Daphnia magna, piperonyl butoxide, cytotoxicity, survival, fertility
Hazard and toxicity assessment of the microorganism Bacillus Komagataella (Pichia)pastoris ВKПМ Y-4225 was performed. In accordance with legislative regulatory documents in force for its congener in taxonomic aspect of cytochrome C producer strain Pichia membranifaciens ВKПМ Y-934, MAC occupational air on the level of 2x103 cells/m3 mark A and MAC atmospheric air on the level of 2x102cells/m3 mark A in residential settings are recommended for the microorganism Bacillus Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris ВKПМ Y-4225.
Keywords: microorganism, toxicity, hazard