The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
An analysis of recent data on the use and evaluation of industrial microorganisms biosafety was conducted. On the basis of our own experimental data from the study of the nature of biotechnological strains harmful effects , a classification of their hazard degrees was proposed; the strains hazard dependency on their taxonomic position was identified. Prospects for studies on problems of microorganisms strains biosafety used in biotechnology are discussed.
Keywords: biosafety, biotechnology strains, allergenicity, immunotrophicity
The paper presents results of experimental studies on substantiation of maximum single allowable concentration (MAC maximum single) of food flavors volatile components (groups: lemonade, rum, citrus, vanilla-creamy, milk-creamy, fruit and berry) in the residential areas atmospheric air at 0.4 mg/m3 level. The value was set based on olfactoryodorimetry with consideration of new approaches to inadmissibility of «obsessive» odor as limiting criterion for substantiation of MAC maximum single according to international practice of setting odor limits and to the domestic experience in standardization of allowable odor limits and regulation of odorous substances in the atmospheric air over recent years. Meeting established values, which correspond to levels recommended in foreign countries for production of flavors and flavorings protects the population from «obsessive» odor.
Keywords: MAC maximum single, food flavorings, odor, odor, olfactory-odorimetry
The paper presents experimental data on the effect of vinyl chloride metabolites on the white rats behavior and results of their quantitative content in biological fluids of animals exposed to xenobiotics . Animals divided into groups received intraperitoneal injections of chloroethanol (CE) in a concentration of 20 mg/kg, monochloroacetic acid (MСAA) in a concentration of 10 mg/kg, control animals received distilled water. A total duration of exposure to xenobiotics was 2 weeks. The animals were surveyed in the tests “maze” and “open field”. To measure the concentrations of metabolites in biological samples, were used gas chromatography techniques with electron capture (GS-ECD) and mass selective detection (GC-MS). It was found out that the exposure to chloroethanol and monochloroacetic acid affected the behavior of experimental animals. Exposure to cloroethanol contributed to the development of anxiety and increased level of exploratory activity in experimental animals. Intoxication with monochloroacetic acid also contributed to a more pronounced exploratory behavior along with excitment (agitation). In animals exposed to CE, the presence of this compound in blood was revealed an hour after termination of the last injection. However as early as 2 hours after exposure, the concentration of CE decreased 13-fold. In control animals chloroethanol in the blood was not found. In two experimental groups as well as in the control, the presence of MCAA was not detected. The content of thyodiacetic acid (TDAA) significantly differed from the control values.
Keywords: experimental studies, vinyl chloride, vinyl chloride metabolites, gas chromatography, behavior of white rats
Cytotoxicity of urine (n=29), soil and snow (n=13) using bull spermatozoa short-term suspension culture and analyzer AT-5 was studied. For each sample, 3 to 4 repeated series of tests were carried out with new test and control solutions as well as with newly defrosted bull spermatozoa suspension. To assess reproducibility of results, a variation factor for the index of toxicity (It) was determined. It is shown that It is highly variable. Repeated series of tests allow to lower probability of error in the research.
Keywords: reproducibility, cytotoxicity, toxicity analyzer
The impact of alcohol toxic doses and salmonella infection on the immune system was studied. Immunogram parameters in healthy persons , patients with acute alcohol gastroenteritis and patients with salmonella gastroenteritis were investigated. Identification of immune reactivity in patients with salmonella and alcohol gastroenteritises is helpful in physicians’ practice and serves for early demarcation between data on pathologies. A higher percentage of CD19 lymphocytes in patients with salmonella gastroenteritis was observed compared to those suffering from acute alcohol gastroenteritis. The largest differences in immune reactivity were found out in immunoglobulin M indices that permits to use this index for differential diagnosis of salmonella gastroenteritis and acute alcohol gastroenteritis. A method is proposed for differential diagnosis of salmonella and alcohol gastroenteritises which permits to detect alcohol gastroenteritis with values of immunoglobulin M below 1.4 g/l and at values above 1.6 g/l salmonella enteritis is diagnosed.
Keywords: salmonella, alcohol, gastroenteritis, immunity
Results of the investigation into biochemical indices of blood serum, liver and brain homogenates of rats at acute ethyl alcohol poisoning, using peptide preparations molixan and semax are reported. 40 % ethanol solution was intragastrically administrated in a dose of 12 g/kg that corresponds to 1.5 LD50. Molixan was administered intraabdominally in a dose of 30 mg/kg and semax intranasally in a dose of 3 mg/kg. The preparations efficacy was evaluated using of therapeutic and prophylactic (an hour before and just after administration of ethanol) application scheme. The evaluation of biochemical parameters was performed 3 hours, 1 day and 3 days after modeling of the alcohol intoxication. It was found out that acute ethanol poisoning induced cytolytic and cholestatic hepatitis syndromes in poisoned animals, as well as increased oxidative stress processes which varied time-dependently after administration of ethanol. The therapeutic and preventive application of molixan and semax had a positive impact on the dynamics of indicators characterizing metabolism, hepatic cytolysis and increased the amount of reduced glutathione and significantly lowered malondialdehyde in the tissues of poisoned animals as well.
Keywords: ethanol, poisoning, peptides, molixan, semax, blood biochemical indices, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde
The possibility of using unicellular organisms: luminescent bacteria, ciliates Tetrahimena pyriformis and cattle spermatozoa as test-objects for assessment of acids toxicity was experimentally evaluated. It was established that the analyzed bioassays are highly sensitive to the toxic effects of acids. It was shown that luminescent bacteria, ciliates Tetrahimena pyriformis and cattle spermatozoa can be successfully used in methods for accelerated assessment of acid-base pollution of the environment and working space.
Keywords: biotesting, test-object, tluminescent bacteria, Tetrahimena pyriformis, cattle spermatozoa, acids
The asthenia is one of the most frequently occurring syndromes in the clinical practice of any physician including toxicologists. Asthenia is a pathological condition of a human body which is caused by qualitative changes in a functional condition of the central nervous system (CNS); it is bound to an increased consumption of power potential and mediator substances in CNS. 288 patients with acute psychopharmacological poisoning were monitored. The presence of an asthenic syndrome in children was identified by data of clinical monitoring and by means of the pathopsycological examination completed with a subjective scale of asthenia (MFI-20). The first signs of asthenisation in children under observation appeared on the 3rd day of the illness, and by the 5th day of stay in hospital , expressed manifestations of the asthenic syndrome of hyposthenic or hypersthenic type took place. Keywords: asthenia, children, central nervous system, poisonings, psychopharmacological agents
Results of investigations into some immunobiochemical indices in crucian carp at a chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of copper ions are reported. Anti- microbial properties in the blood serum and a share of immunodeficient fishes were studied; in liver a content of nonspecific immune complexes, level of common lipids, content of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant activity were investigated. The dependency of values of indices under consideration on how long fishes stayed under experimental conditions was shown.
Keywords: fish, copper ions, humoral immunity, lipids, pro-and anti -oxidant system
Results of investigations into some immunobiochemical indices in crucian carp at a chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of copper ions are reported. Anti-microbial properties in the blood serum and a share of immunodeficient fishes were studied, in liver they were a content of non specific immune complexes, level of common lipids, content of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant activity. The dependency of values of indices under consideration on how long fishes stayed under experimental conditions was shown. `
Keywords: fish, copper ions, humoral immunity, lipids, pro-and anti -oxidant system
Hazard and toxicity assessment of the microorganism Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OPS-32 was performed. Based on data obtained, MAC atmospheric air of the strain on the level of 5x103 cells/m3, hazard class 4 is recommended for the atmospheric air of residential areas.
Keywords: microorganism, toxicity, hazard