The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)


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Mar–Apr, 2016
# 2


INFLUENCE OF ACUTE POISONINGS WITH PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL DRUGS ON CERTAIN INDICATORS OF NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
Authors: Kovalenko L. A. , Alekhnovich A. V. , Sukhodolova G. N. , Ilyashenko K. K.

The stress-realizing reaction provides a metabolic basis of compensatory and adaptive changes occurring in the human body under the impact of aggressive factors including chemical agents. The main role in neuroendocrine regulation of a stress is played by the brain layer of adrenal glands. The thyroid gland, as well as adrenal glands also belongs to «classical» endocrine glands and plays an important role in maintenance of homeostasis. Researches were conducted in 144 patients aged from 20 to 45, in 40 children at the age of 11 to 15 and in 45 patients from 1 to 5 year old admitted to hospital before a special care was performed. The conducted researches showed that during the first hours after acute poisonings with psychopharmacological preparations, irrespective of age, cortisol concentration increased in patients blood proportionally to the severity of intoxication which was more expressed in children at early age. Concentration changes in the thyroid gland hormones in all patients happened within reference values.

Keywords: poisoning, psychopharmacological preparations, stress, hormones


POSSIBILITIES OF CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN MODELING ACUTE POISONING WITH VR AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY USING CARBOXIM
Authors: Koryagina N. L. , Savelieva E. I. , Ukolov A. I. , Prokofieva D. S. , Khlebnikova N. S. , Orlova T. I. , Ukolova E. S. , Radilov A. S. , Goncharov N. V.

The effect of the cholinesterase reactivator carboxim was studied on the possibility of the determination of markers of VR (О-isobutyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methylthiophosphonate) in biomedical samples obtained in in vivo acute experiments in rats injected with 2 0.4LD50 of VR at 1hour interval. It was found that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a more sensitive blood plasma biomarker compared to butyrylchlonesterase (BChE) in blood plasma. Carboxim therapy led to AChE reactivation 3 h after poisoning, whereas in the absence of therapy, the AChE activity recovered within 3 days. Fluoride-based regeneration of organophophorus nerve agents (OPNAs) from blood plasma protein adducts was possible within 7 days after poisoning irrespective of whether the therapy was applied or not. The effect of the reactivator on the excretion of VR hydrolysis products was considerable. A day after poisoning and carboxim injection, О-isobutyl methylphosphonate (iBuMPA) was detected in urine at a level of 17 ng/ml against 7.4 ng/ml in the urine samples of untreated animals; after 3 days, iBuMPA could be detected at a level of 1 ng/ml exclusively in the latter urine samples. It was also found that the levels of free and esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma samples of animals not subjected to antidotal therapy reached a maximum on the 7th day after acute exposure to VR. Therefore, the blood plasma levels of free and esterified fatty acids can be used as an additional toxicodynamic parameter of VR poisoning.

Keywords: Chemical toxicological analysis, organophophorus nerve agents, VR, markers, gas chromatography: mass spectrometry, antidotal therapy


COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ALCOHOLS AND ALCOHOL-BASED SKIN ANTISEPTICS
Authors: Bidevkina M. V. , Baklanova O. V. , Rysina T. Z. , Suetina I. A. , Lopatina O. A. , Potapova T. N. , Mezentseva M. V. , Limantsev A. V. , Russu L. I. , Alekseeva Zh. P.

The cytotoxic action of skin antiseptics based on ethyl, propyl and isopropyl alcohols were investigated into the culture of human embryonic fibroblast cells using MTT-test and xCELLigence system for real-time analysis into the bull spermatozoa with registering toxicity index. The dependence of the cytotoxicity degree on the chemical composition of a preparation was established. The investigation of antiseptics skin-resorptive action mechanisms in weanling rats has shown that prepubertal females are more sensitive to the effect of alcohols compared to males. The use of skin antiseptics based on ethyl and isopropyl alcohols is recommended for hygienic treatment of children’s hands.

Keywords: skin antiseptics, alcohols, cytotoxic action, cell culture, laboratory animals


BLOOD ESTRERASE PROFILE IN MICE AT ACUTE INTOXICATION BY 2-(О-CRESYL)-4Н-1,3,2- BENZODIOXAPHOSPHORIN-2-OXIDE
Authors: Prokofieva D. S. , Shmurak V. I. , Krivoshein A. E. , Bodryakova E. A. , Voitenko N. G.

The influence of 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide (CBDP) on the blood esterase profile in mice was studied at different doses an hour and 24 h after its subcutaneous administration to animals. It is established that CBDP is not a specific carboxyl esterase inhibitor in mice blood serum as it equally inhibits blood butyrylcholinesterase as well. CBDP is a low effective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor in mice blood serum and does not pose an expressed effect in respect to acetylcholinesterase in erythrocytes membranes, however in high doses it is able to lower their amount.

Keywords: 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1, 3, 2-benzodioxaphosphorin-2-oxide, serine esterase, inhibitor, mice


INFLUENCE OF CHRONOBIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS ON TOXICITY OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS DRUG "ISONIAZID" UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS
Authors: Usov K. I. , Guskova T. A. , Yushkov G. G. , Mashanov A. V.

The article reports results of experimental chronic toxicological investigations into the anti-tuberculosis preparation ISONIAZID permitting to prove toxicity lowering at its administration in the evening time.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis preparation, isoniazid, chronobiology, chronobiological rhythms, good chemotherapy, experimental study


NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF NOOPEPT SHOWN IN A MODEL OF FOCAL ISCHEMIC DAMAGE TO THE SPINAL CORD
Authors: Rakitskii V. N. , Pashin S. S.

The aim of the study was a morphofunctional evaluation of the noopept neuroprotective effect in an experimental model of focal ischemic injury to the spinal cord thoracic segment. The results of the pathomorphological and behavioral studies proved the neuroprotective effect of noopept after focal photo-induced thrombosis in blood vessels of the spinal cord thoracic segment in rats.

Keywords: spinal cord, neurons, ischemia, photochemical damage, noopept


PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENT CONTENT AND GROWTH OF MICROALGAE PSEUDO-NITZSHIA PUNGENS (BACILLARIOPHYTA) IN THE PRSENCE OF POTASSIUM DICHROMATE
Authors: Markina Zh. V. , Ayzdaycher N. A.

1. Shanker A.K., Cervantes C., Loza-Tavera H., Avudainayagam S. Chromium toxicity in plants. Envir. Int. 2005; 31: 739–753. 2. Přibyl P., Cepác V. Chromium influenes growth and cell morphology but itself does not induce gametogenesis in three Scenedesmus obliquus strains. Czech Phycol. 2005; 5: 91-100. 3. Новикова И.П., Паршикова Т.В., Власенко В.В. Изменение функционального состояния клеток Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang. в присутствии бихромата калия в среде. Альгология. 2008; 18: 113–122. 4. Айздайчер Н.А., Маркина Ж.В. Влияние соли шестивалентного хрома на рост популяции, морфологию клеток и физиологические показатели бентосной микроводоросли Attheya ussurensis Stonik, Orlova et Crawford, 2006 (Bacillariophyta) в культуре. Биол. моря. 2011; 37: 455–460. 5. Villac M.C., Roelke D.L., Chavez F.P., Cifuentes L.A., Fryxell G.A. Pseudo-nitzshia pungens, P. australis Frenguelli and related species from the west coast of the U.S.A.: occurrence and domoic acid production // J. Shellfish Res. 1993; 12: 457–465. 6. Trainer V.L., Wekell J.C., HornerR.A., Hatfield C.L., Stein J.E. Domoic acid production in Pseudo-nitzshia pungens // Harmful Algae. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Harmful Algae, 25–29 June 1997, Vigo Spain / Eds. Requera B., Blanco J., Fernandez M., Wyatt. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Xunta de Galicia and IOC of UNESCO Publishers, 1998; 337–340. 7. Hasle G.R. Are the most of the domoic acid-producing species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzshia cosmopolites? Harmful Algae. 2002; 1: 137–146. 8. Стоник И.В., Орлова Т.Ю., Айздайчер Н.А. О морфологии диатомовых водорослей рода Pseudo-nitzschia из Дальневосточных морей России. Вестн. РФФИ; 2011; 1(69): 103–106. 9. Guillard R.R.L. Ryther J.H. Studies of marine planktonic diatoms. I. Cyclotella nana Hustedt. and Detonula confervacea (Cleve) Gran. Can. J. Microbiol. 1962; 8: 229–239. 10. Вода. Методика спектрофотометрического определения хлорофилла а. Гос. стандарт СССР. Гос. ком. СССР по охране природы. М.: Изд-во стандартов; 1990. 15 с. 11. Руководство по определению методом биотестирования токсичности вод, донных отложений, загрязняющих веществ и буровых растворов. М.: РЭФИА, НИА – Природа; 2002. 12. Брагинский Л.П., Величко И.М., Щербань Э.П. Пресноводный планктон в токсической среде. Киев: Наукова думка; 1987.

Keywords: 12


COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF SILVER SALTS AND SILVER NANOPARTICLES TO MICROALGA SCENEDESMUS QUADRICAUDA
Authors: Ipatova V. I. , Dmitrieva A. G. , Drozdenko T. V.

The effect of silver salts (macroform) and colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) (nanoform) on microalgae Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. (= Desmodesmus communis (E. Hegew.) E. Hegew.) was studied. The change in the cells number was taken as the culture growth main indicator. Based on results of chronic tests, the magnitude of LC50 and threshold limit values TLV (LC20 ) were estimated and follow-up toxicity index, hazard index and hazard indicator of investigated substances were calculated .It was shown that silver salts in macro form are more toxic to the population of S. quadricauda, than nano form of silver. The tested substances can be ranged in the following order: AgNO3> Ag2SO4> AgNP according to their toxic effects on the change in the S. quadricauda number of cells, LC50 values, threshold concentrations (TLV) and calculated toxicity and hazard indexes in a long-term experiment. Toxicity of colloidal silver to Scenedesmus quadricauda occurred within 20 days after application of the preparation and the subsequent restoration of the cells number was due to the presence of resistant cells in the population.

Keywords: Scenedesmus quadricauda, silver nitrate, silver sulfate, colloidal silver, silver nanoparticles, comparative toxicity


News on toxicity and hazard of chemical and biological substances
Authors: Mitrokhin N. M. , Golubeva M. I. , Razumnaya I. N. , Fastov S. A. , Fastov I. S.

Aluminosilicate clay nanotubes (ANT, halloysite clay) are considered as a new class of carriers for biologically active substances. The study was conducted in accordance with regulatory guidance documents in force for the purpose of experimental evaluation of acute toxicity and hazard of ANT intragastrically administrated and applied to the skin in mice and rats. It is shown that the tubular enriched kaolin (aluminosilicate clay nanotubes) (production of °SC «NT&I», Russia) in accordance with GOST 12.1.007-76 may be referred to hazard class 4 (low hazard substance). Based on the results of the study, it could be said that a promising nano-sized material (ANT) was produced that can be used as a drug carrier for medications.

Keywords: Aluminosilicate clay nanotubes (halloysite clay), acute toxicity and hazard, intra gastric administration, application to skin, mice, rats


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