The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The objective of the present research was a clarification of possibility of secondary damage to biological objects in a remote period (100 days) after application of irritants chloracetophenone, ortochlorbenzylidenmalonodinitrile, dibenzoxazepine and morpholide of pelargonic acid as components of the gas weapon. In a model experiment, irritants were applied to a fabric target in a quantity corresponding to an estimated concentration arising at the dispersion of a gas spray from a distance of 0.5 meters and 1.5 meters. Data are submitted on a remaining irritant in the target object after 100 days at an open way of storage The toxicity assessment of irritants to a biological test object zoohydrobiont Daphnia magna Straus was carried out. The concentration of irritants extracted from the target object were compared to their toxicity to Daphnia. It was established that chloracetophenone, dibenzoxazepine, and pelargonic acid morphodine preserved their activity and possibility to affect an ecosystem more than 100 days after their application . At the maximum extraction from the target, ortokhlorbenzylidenmalonodinitrile does not preserve its biological activity 100 days after application.
Keywords: irritant, ability preservation in targets, bio objects secondary damage, Daphnia magna, bio testing
A preclinical safety study of an antimicrobial phyto preparation «Sanguiritrin» in immature animals was carried out. It is shown that at a single intraperitoneal administration of«Sanguiritrin» to newborn baby rats and rats of 3 weeks of age, a mean lethal dose was set at a level of 22.0 ± 2.5 mg/kg and 17.6 ± 1.5 mg/kg (male), 18.0 ± 2,0 mg/kg (female), respectively. Infant rats are less sensitive to the «Sanguiritrin» toxic effect as compared to sexually mature rats (LD50 10.0-12.0 mg/kg). A long-term peroral administration (2 months) of the substance «Sanguiritrin» in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg did not have a damaging effect on 3 weeks of age rats major body organs and systems. The intake of «Sanguiritrin» in infant rats in a dose of 5 mg/kg significantly decreased their body weight and disturbed renal excretory function. Application of 0.2% alcohol solution and 1% liniment «Sanguiritrin» to the skin of newborn baby rats and 3 weeks of age rats under conditions of a chronic experiment showed a good tolerability, absence of local irritating action and undesirable toxic effects.
Keywords: preclinical toxicology studies, , 0.2% alcohol solution and 1% liniment, 3 weeks of age rats and infant rats
The article summarizes experimental data on toxicological interactions of blocker of amplodipine slow calcium channels with angiotensin II (AT1 subtype) receptors blockers (valsartan and losartan). Toxicity studies were performed in outbred rats after a single intragastric administration in doses permitting to estimate lethal doses for the objects under investigation (amlodipine, valsartan, losartan, amlodipine+ losartan 1:10, amlodipine+ losartan 1:20, amlodipine + valsartan 1:16, amlodipine + valsartan 1:32). Based on the research outcome, the possibility of different types of toxicological interaction is shown between representatives of classes of slow calcium channels blockers and angiotensin II receptors blockers: from potentiation of toxic effects to the antagonism in relation to toxicity. Identified toxicological interactions in fixed combinations depend on the proportion of active ingredients in the combination, as well as on modes of action features and pharmacokinetics of each active ingredient.
Keywords: antihypertensive preparations, blockers of slow calcium channels, angiotensin receptors blockers, toxicological interaction, preclinical studies, acute toxicity in rats
The toxicological assessment of diazoline, the first- generation antihistaminic preparation, was carried out together with justification of the hygiene standard for permissible content ( (Tentative Safe Exposure LevelTSEL) of occupational air in production premises. It was found out that according to acute oral toxicity criterion, Diazoline refers to low hazardous substances. In the clinical picture of acute and sub-chronic intoxication, CNS involvement prevails. Diazolin has a weak local irritant effect in case of contact with mucous membranes, shows a strong cumulative activity. In case of intracutaneous sensitization, it influences indicators of the cellular and humoral component of innate and acquired immunity. TSEL of diazoline in occupational air is 1.0 mg/m .
Keywords: diazoline, toxicological assessment, hygienic standard, occupational air
Toxicity effects of «Cigalin» and «Ferocit» lyophilizates used for formulation of the radiopharmaceutical preparation 68Ga-citrate were studied in animal organisms (rats, mice). Good tolerability, absence of pronounced intoxication symptoms, allergenic effects and animal deaths were noted in experiments using a recommended clinic dose of lyophilizates. «Cigalin» didn’t produce toxicity effects influencing on statistically significant changes in blood main hematological and biochemical parameters. Similar changes in case of «Ferocit» used in multiple doses were functionally reversible. The results permit to characterize 68Ga-citrate as safe for clinical applications in radionuclide diagnostics for PET imaging of inflammation and infection.
Keywords: Cigalin, Ferocit, 68Ga-citrate, acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, allergenic effect, safety
A clinical observation of a patient, a drug courier. smuggling heroin in containers in gastric cavity is described. He was admitted to a multi-field hospital in consequence of acute poisoning. The acute poisoning resulted from a spontaneous violation of the container and outpouring of its content into the gastric cavity. At hospital, diagnostics and a combined treatment including surgical intervention and detoxification were carried out. Results of clinical, laboratory and instrumental investigations as well as treatment outcome are reported.
Keywords: heroin, systemic inflammation, surgical treatment
An attempt was made to estimate the dimension of direct toxic effects of exposure to Cd on the basis of researches on reproductive parameters in small mammals in natural populations ( on the example of red-backed vole) inhabiting localities of large-scale non-ferrous metal plants and comparison of results obtained with outcome of toxicological experiments ( chronic exposure of female rats to Cd) ). It was expected that at the existing pollution levels, embryonic losses caused by direct toxic effect of Cd shouldn’t exceed 7%; however actual losses significantly exceeded extrapolation results. Distinctions observed are caused by impact of external and internal factors influencing reproductive potential on fulfillment of reproduction of animals in natural populations.
Keywords: pollution of the environment, cadmium, natural populations, red -backed vole, embryonic losses, toxicological experiment
The effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of lanthanum on the survival, growth and reproductive parameters of cladoceran Ceriodaphnia affinis in acute and chronic experiments are presented.
Keywords: rare earth elements, lanthanum, toxicity, Ceriodaphnia