The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Observations on 59 patients suffering from a severe poisoning by various toxic agents, who were admitted to a rehabilitation toxicological department of N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine were generalised. Those agents were psychopharmacological drugs (13), cauterizing liquids (18) and neurotoxicants (narcotics of opium group, ethanol, psychopharmacological (28). All the patients showed signs of endotoxemia of moderate severity: mean concentration of leukocytes in venous blood slightly exceeded normal limits and an increased concentration of dead cells in blood as well as of lymphocytes expressing Fas-surface receptor were noted. The obtained data were used to evaluate the effectiveness of non-drug therapeutic methods (laser hemotherapy, mesodiencephalic modulation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy) and pharmacotherapy (mexidol). Correction of endotoxemia using the above-mentioned methods in the complex therapy can significantly reduce the rehabilitation time in patients and may have a positive effect on the duration of hospital treatment.
Keywords: acute poisonings, diagnosis, treatment, endotoxemia, cellular components of toxemia
The article describes the influence of different versions of infusion therapy of poisonings with acetic acid on central hemo dynamics indicators and acidosis severity at the pre-hospital stage . It was found out that the use of a balanced Reamberin polyionic solution allowed to achieve the most efficient correction of acidosis and a positive effect on hemodynamic indicators-cardiac index(CI), cardiac stroke volume in a minute (SV), central venous pressure (CVP).
Keywords: poisoning with acetic acid, acidosis, Reamberin, hemodynamics
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes polymorphism and the frequency of cytopathology of peripheral blood erythrocytes in the workers occupationally exposed to mercury as well as in the occupationally non-exposed local population of the Aktash settlement of the Republic Altai (control group). It was found that the workers of the mercury producing and recycling enterprise with deletion (null)-variant GSTM1 genes showed significantly higher levels of anisocytosis in the peripheral blood than both the GSTM1 positive individuals and the control group (P<0,01). In addition, the null variants of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in workers were significantly associated with the elevated frequency of poikilocytosis, particularly macrocytosis, and micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood as compared to the controls and the active genotype GSTM1(+) / GSTT1(+) (P<0,01). Moreover, the increased level of microcytosis was detected exclusively in workers with the combination of null variants of GSTT1(o) and GSTM1(o) genes. Analysis of the data of the control group as well as the workers exposed to mercury, demonstrated that in the individuals with the combination of null variants of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes, the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was significantly higher than in the ones with active genotypes of GSTM1(+) / GSTT1(+).
Keywords: gene polymorphism, glutathione-S-transferase, GSTM1, GSTT1, workers, mercury industry, pathological forms of erythrocytes
Levels of expression of Ache and Bche genes in tissue samples were investigated in rats exposed to malathion in dose of 1 LD50 and following atropine treatment. Malathion poisoning causes statistically significant decrease in levels of expression of Ache and Bche genes in brain and liver. The decrease of expression of these genes was greater than 50 % and remained at this level during 14 days. It was shown that atropine treatment prevents decrease in Ache gene expression in brain. These findings suggest the possibility of gene expression level assessment in brain during the screening of promising treatments for OP poisoning.
Keywords: gene expression, gene Ache, gene Bche, malathion, atropine
The article presents results of apoptosis evaluation in albino rat neurons using comet assay for DNA and immune histochemical analysis to determine the activity of pro-and anti--apoptotic proteins caspase 3 and bcl-2 at exposure to nano biocomposites representing nano silver embedded in a matrix of a natural arabinogalactan. In preparations of nervous tissue of rats exposed to nano silver arabinogalactan polymer, a statistically significant increase of DNA content in comet tails was found out. DNA comets with DNA tail content of more than 70%, which could be regarded as apoptotic have not been observed in investigated formulations. The results of the immune histochemical determination of expression of anti-and pro- apoptotic proteins bcl-2 and caspase-3 in neurons show on the contrary the development of apoptosis in nerve cells. Comparing results of the studies performed, a conclusion can be drawn that to detect the apoptosis process, immune histochemical methods for determination of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are more efficient than DNA comet assay.
Keywords: nanosilver arabinogalactan, white rats, apoptosis, genotoxicity, caspase 3, bcl-2, DNA-comets
Studies were conducted on 12 sheep of Romanov breed, 1-1.5 years old and weighing 33,0 ± 1.1 kg,. The animals were equally divided at random into 4 groups: group 1st received basic control diet (control group), 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups daily received feed with lead nitrate in concentrations of 5, 25 and 150 mg/kg during the 90 day experiment. With account of daily diet of 2 kg, a daily intake of metal was on average of 10, 50 and 300 mg respectively. A total and reparative DNA synthesis was determined in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein before feeding on the 7th, 14th, 28th, 42nd, 56th, 70th and 90th days of investigation. The chronic lead intake with the diet in sheep was characterized by changes in the total and reparative DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes. It was observed that the low level of lead in diet (5 mg/kg) activates or inhibits the synthesis and reparation processes depending on the date of the study. The activation of the total and reparative DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes was observed with increase of the metal content in the diet (25 and 50 mg/kg). The most pronounced changes were registered in animals of the 4th group (150 mg/kg). It is supposed that the activation of the reparation process makes the main contribution to the intensity of the total DNA synthesis in peripheral blood lymphocytes at a chronic exposure to lead.
Keywords: sheep, lymphocytes, peripheral blood, lead, total and reparative DNA synthesis
Toxicological properties and main biological action mechanisms of a new chemical compound Phenozan-23 (Ph-23) belonging to alkylphenol class were studied in laboratory animals. Based on the outcome of experimental studies, toxicometric parameters of Phenozan-23 were stated, its maximum concentration levels in ambient air were substantiated. Test objects were laboratory animals including rabbits, guinea pigs, white rats, white mice. The chemical compound was Phenozan-23.
Keywords: toxicity, experimental studies, laboratory animals, PH-23
Toxic metals are among the most important chemical pollutants of aquatic environments. Interaction of copper and other toxic metals with biomass of algae is of interest to modern ecology and biotechnology. In this paper, interactions of the biomass of a unique extremophilic (acidophilic, thermophilic) algae Galdieria sulphuraria with copper and other metals in the aquatic environment were studied. This unicellular extremophilic, acidophilic eukaryotic organism is found in hot springs and geothermal habitats. In this paper, results of experiments with the biomass and mortmass of this organism are reported. Measurements were made using the method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP- MS). Biosorption of copper and some other metals by the biomass of this organism was discovered after incubation in an aquatic medium mingled with these metals. Biosorption (immobilization) of lead and nickel from the aquatic environment was not found out. In experiments with the mortmass of Galdieria sulphuraria no sorption of copper and lead was revealed. The results obtained are useful to develop a new biotechnology for removal of toxic metals from water.
Keywords: biosorption, algae, Galdieria sulphuraria, metals, cobalt, zinc, nickel, cadmium, copper, lead, biomass, ICP-MS
A combined effect of 1.5 mg / l of cadmium sulfate and 100 g / l of shungite on the development of the culture of green chlorococcales microalgae Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb was studied. It is shown that stimulation of algal culture growth was observed in the presence of shungite, and in the presence of cadmium sulfate on the contrary, there is a complete inhibition of its growth as compared to the controls. Under the combined action of cadmium sulfate and shungite on the Scenedesmus quadricauda, cadmium sulfate toxic effect disappeared. The most intensive growth of the culture occurred when shungite was only added to the culture medium and herewith in the presence of schungite, the photosynthesis efficiency, number of cells and live cells percentage increased. In the presence of schungite, were observed lengthening of the growth stationary phase and a later transition of the culture to the die-away phase. It means, the population life span lengthens. Apparently, shungite in the culture medium acts as a sorbent on the one hand, and on the other hand alters the medium redox state, contributing to the culture favorable growth. The mechanism of shungite action could be various and it can be used as a universal remedy for purification of water from various pollutants.
Keywords: Scenedesmus quadricauda, cadmium sulfate, shungite, cell viability, fluorescence, photosynthesis efficiency