The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
A short sketch of the establishment and development of toxicology in St.Petersburg ( Leningrad) is presented.
Keywords: toxicology, scientific schools, research centers
The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of harmful factors of electrolysis nickel production on the state of respiratory health in 1530 nickel industry workers. It was found that one-fifth of the workers are at risk of forming chronic bronchopulmonary disease (CBPD). In about one-fifth of those examined, clinically formed CBPDs have already developed, among which the most prevalent diseases were chronic bronchitis (12%) and toxic pulmonary fibrosis (6%). The highest risk of developing chronic bronchitis was observed in the most exposed groups of workers: electrolysis operators (RR = 1.87), hydrometallurgical equipment operators (RR = 1.55) and fitters-repairmen (RR = 1.55). Up to now there is no clear understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of a particular nosological form of CBPD (chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, chronic pulmonary fibrosis) in nickel industry workers. The conclusion is made about the need to improve the system of technical and medical measures for prevention of CBPD in nickel industry workers.
Keywords: aerosols of nickel compounds, bronchopulmonary diseases, nickel industry workers
Based on investigations carried out, the information capacity of some neuro behavioral tests was established in the course of clinical diagnosis of manganese intoxication in arc-welders exposed to welding aerosol. The average length of service of arc-welders was 19.5 years. The most clear differences were noted in performing stability static test, fingerprint test, fine motor skills assessment. A recommended application algorithm of neuro behavioral tests can be used in early diagnosis of initial manifestations of manganese intoxication as a result of occupational exposure to welding aerosol.
Keywords: manganese intoxication (manganism), neuro behavioral tests, arc-welders
Within the framework of the International Project KolArctic «Food and health security in the Norwegian, Finnish and Russian border region» carried out in the Pechenga district of the Murmansk region in Autumn 2013, a selection of local foods of animal origin was performed including 9 kinds of fish from 5 lakes at different distances away from the Nickel settlement; a survey of 400 inhabitants was also carried out. Local foods (primarily fish) make a significant part of the population’s dietary. The concentration of 40 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in foods was analyzed in a laboratory of the Scientific-Production Association «Typhoon». Levels of HCB, DDT, PCB (units mkg/kg fresh weight) in samples investigated were tenfold to hundredfold lower than corresponding MACs. Of 15 congeners investigated, five congeners #118. #99, #101, #138 and #153 prevailed in all fauna samples. For the majority of types of fish, high magnitudes of DDE/DDT ratios were found out which evidences of a longago pollution of water basins with DDT. It was noted a decrease of POPs levels in lake fishes with the increase in distance from Pechenga Nickel. The fish from the lake Kuetsyarvi into which waste water is discharged is the most polluted with POPs. Of all kinds of local fauna, salmon contains a maximum concentration of POPs and of lake fishes, it is cisco. Low levels of POPs in local foods found out in the present investigation may be considered as a small contribution to the general exposition of the Pechenga district population to harmful substances.
Keywords: foodstuff, fish, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), DDT, PCB, HCB, exposure, Murmansk region, Russian Arctic
The effectiveness of gene therapy agents application, i.e.: recombinant plasmid DNA (RPD) coding body growth factor production (nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and somatoliberin-1) was shown using a model of peripheral neuropathy caused by a thrice-repeated 0.5 LD50 malathion injection to rats. RPD NGF and RPD VEGF were found to have the strongest nerve tissue protective effect. According to electrophysiological studies findings, the preparations based on these plasmid constructions exerted a positive effect as early as a week after the damage and completely removed neuropathy manifestations by the 21 day.
Keywords: malathion, peripheral neuropathies, recombinant plasmid DNA, growth factors
Results of an investigation into liver morphological changes at acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and their correction with molixan and semax combination are presented. Ethanol was administrated intragastrically as a 40% solution in a dose of 12 g/kg that corresponds to 1.5 LD50 . Semax was administrated intranasally in a dose of 3 mg/kg and molixan intraabdominally in a dose of 30 mg/kg. The preparations efficacy was evaluated using the following application schemes: prophylactic (single dose an hour prior to ethanol), therapeutic and prophylactic (an hour before and just after administration of ethanol), early therapeutic (just after administration of ethanol and then once daily during two next days) and delayed therapeutic (30 min after administration of ethanol and then once daily during two next days). The sampling of the material under investigation was performed 1 hour, 3 hours, 1 day and 3 days after modelling of the alcohol intoxication. It was found out that ethanol in a dose of 1.5 LD50 induces changes in liver in the form of fatty, albuminous, hydropic degeneration, focal necrosis, stromal cell reactions. It was shown that the therapeutic and prophylactic application of the molixan and semax combination significantly reduces the intensity and prevalence of dystrophic and necrotic processes and stromal cell reactions in liver.
Keywords: poisoning, ethanol, molixan, semax, liver, morphological structure
Due to an increasing amount of acute intoxications with methadone , the number of complicated forms of poisonings of this etiology increased too. Some of the life-threatening complications are an acute compartment syndrome and systemic rhabdomyolysis. The objective of the present investigation was to assess the clinical course of the main homeostasis disorders appearing in this pathology. It was found out that acute intoxication with methadone complicated with systemic rhabdomyolysis proceeds in a more serious way than in the development of isolated compartment ischemia of soft tissues. In pathogenesis of the myolysis formation, quite an important role belongs to hypoxia that develops due to methadone action. One of the diagnosis criteria for rhabdomyolysis could be the creatine phosphokinase significance. Main therapy trends should be rehydration therapy, correction of electrolytic balance and acid-base state, neuro metabolic therapy aimed at the fastest stopping of hypoxia consequences, kidneys replacement therapy in case of renal failure.
Keywords: methadone, intoxication, compartment syndrome, systemic rhabdomyolysis
The article provides a clinical follow-up of a patient taken to a hospital toxicology center after a suicide attempt with intravenous injection of elemental mercury. Results of clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination investigations are reported.
Keywords: elemental mercury, intravenous administration