The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
For the first time an investigation was conducted into the influence of sarin (GB), soman (GD) and Russian substance Vx (RVX) with and without application of antidotal preparations ( carboxin and carboxin mixed with atropine) on the qualitative and quantitative composition of free and etherified fatty acids at the level of LD50 (FFA and EFA correspondingly) in the blood plasma. Administration of GB and GD doses at the level of LD50 to rats causes a decrease of FFA in blood plasma after 3 hours . 24 hours later the FFA returns to the normal level. Administration of 2x0.4 LD50 RVX conditions an elevated level of FFA and EFA in the blood plasma throughout a week including enrichment of the FFA fraction with polyunsaturated acids. Antidotal therapy normalizes the FFA and EFA dynamics but does not prevent changes in their levels over first hours. Unlike organophosphorous pesticides, RVX at the level of LD50 inhibits acetyl cholinesterase but does not affect lipid exchange over first 24 hours.
Keywords: organophosphorous compounds, sarin, soman, RVX, fatty acides, blood plasma
In rats with liver cholestatic injury ( common bile duct ligation during 13 days), a combination of taurine with zinc diaspartate in the ratio of 50 g/mole to 1 g/mole .(«taucine-50») in dose of 0.5 g/kg shows a hepatoprotective effect judging from improvement of marker biochemical indicators of hepatotoxicity in plasma. As the period of cholesterase increases up to 21 days and hepatopathy is worsenig, «taucine-20» in the above mentioned dose also produces an equivalent hepatoprotective effect.
Keywords: rats, cholestasia, marker biochemical indicators of hepatotoxicity in plasma, combination of taurine with zinc diaspartate, hepatoprotective action
The therapeutic action of atropine (0.4, 2, 20 mg/kg) was assessed on models of rats intramuscular and intragastric poisoning with malathion in a dose of 1 LD50. It was demonstrated that the drug prevented animals death after the intramuscular administration of malathion and promoted the reduction of intensity of a cholinopositive symptomatology. It also promoted the recovery of the acetyl cholinesterase activity in rats blood up to 80% 8 hours after the therapy, and 24 hours after the injection of malathion, this index reached levels in the control group. The preparation had no protective effect on the modelled intragastric poisoning by malathion independently of its dose. In animals to which atropine (2mg/kg) was administrated an hour after intoxication, the enzyme activity in blood was 40% while in the control group it was 80%. It is practicable to take these findings into consideration while searching and selecting efficient medications for emergency treatment of organophosphorous intoxications.
Keywords: malathion, atropine, protective efficiency, cholinesterase depression
The impact of potassium dichromate on immunological and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats was investigated in a model experiment . In the first place it was found out that a lasting uptake of chromium by the Wistar rat organism produces a depressive influence on the spleen quantitative and functional characteristics in laboratory animals; secondly, it was established that revealed shifts in the immune system parameters are caused by an increased intensity of free radical oxidation (FRO) in rats ( blood serum, spleen, liver) and lipid peroxidation (LPO), shown in an increasing concentration of conjugated dienes (CD) and malon dialdehyde (MDA) in spleen and liver against the background of the catalase decreased activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) -erythrocytes in rats; and third, revealed mechanisms accounting for changes in immunological indicators present an experimental validation to elaborate approaches to preventing adverse effects of that xenobiotic .
Keywords: chromium, immunity, free radical oxidation, rats
The paper summarizes main results of the authors’ in vivo toxicological experiments on rats exposed to either a single intratracheal instillation or to repeated intraperitoneal injections of nanoparticles (NP) of silver, gold, iron oxide, copper oxide, nickel oxide and manganese oxide in stable water suspensions without any chemical additives. It was found out that these NPs were much more noxious on both cellular and organ- systemic levels as compared to their own micrometric or even submicron counterparts. However, the dependence of organ-systemic toxicity on particle sizes within the nanometer range is intricate and non-unique due to complex and often contra-directional relationships between the intrinsic biological aggressiveness of specific nanoparticles, on the one hand, and complex mechanisms governing their toxicokinetics, on the other. Our data testify to a high activity of the pulmonary phagocytosis of nanoparticles deposited in airways. This fact suggests that safe levels of exposure to airborne nanoparticles are possible in principle. An approach is considered to establish provisional standards for such an exposure based on about 10-15-fold decreased exposure as compared to limits which are officially set for respective micro-scale industrial aerosols. It was shown that against the background of adequately composed combinations of some bioactive agents (comprising pectin, multivitamin-multimineral preparations, some amino acids, and omega-3 PUFA) , the systemic toxicity and genotoxicity of metallic NPs could be markedly attenuated.
Keywords: metallic nanoparticles, toxicity, protection
It was established in experiments on non-inbred albino rats that chronic intoxication with trichlorethylene (30 days, subcutaneously daily 0.05 LD50) ) largely decreased Th2- cells activity as compared to Th1-lyphocytes and as well as humoral immune responses as compared to the cellular immune response. Trichloroethylene decreased levels of immune regulatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 in blood ,increased the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and insignificantly raised levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-13 in blood.
Keywords: trichlorethylene, Th1-, Th2 lymphocytes, immunotoxicity, cytokines
Cytotoxic effect posed by draughts of fabrics processed with antimicrobial preparations was studied on a mobile cells culture ( bull spermatozoids) by registering toxicity index on multilayer continuous cells: Vero cellsdetermination of proliferation index, viability and indicator of cells cytotoxic index at their cultivation in bottles and on human embryonic fibroblast diploid cells using MMT-test. A dependence of cytotoxicity on the concentration of preparations used to process fabrics was established.
Keywords: cytotoxic effect, cells culture, disinfectant
Genetic specificities determining different expression levels of OPRM1 gene in white nonlinear rats were investigated after exposure to n-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl) propion anilide at the 1 LD16 dose. The distribution of genotypes of six polymorphic Oprm1 gene variants in rats: rs8174389, rs105312806, rs197580673, rs199420908, rs105551578, rs105958511 were studied. These variants may condition the sensitivity of animals to exposure to opioid receptors agonists. A genetic diversity was revealed in allelic versions of three polymorphisms (rs105312806, rs105958511, rs105551578). The analysis of experimental data showed a statistically significant association (p<0,05) of AA genotype in rs105312806 polymorphism and AA genotype in rs105958511 polymorphism with a more lower level of Oprm1 gene expression in rats spinal cord 24 hours after exposure to n-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl) propionanilide in comparison with animals with TT and GG genotypes accordingly.
Keywords: gene polymorphism, gene Oprm1, expression, n-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidyl) propionanilide
Toxicity of the preparation BARAKLEAN GOLD was assessed for standard test-objects : phytoplanctonic organisms Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohin; zooplanctonic organisms Artemia salina and fishes, one-day old fishes – Poecillia reticulate Peters. Toxicity assessment to hydrobionts was based on indicators of mean lethal concentrations LC50 characterizing changes in survival (death) by 50% in a definite time -24, 48 and 96 hours (LC50 /24,48,96h). Based on toxicity assessment results, it was established that the preparation BARAKLEAN GOLD refers to moderately toxic substances.
Keywords: preparation, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, toxicity