The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The need for an interdisciplinary approach to the examination of the chemicals-related addictive disorders problem is discussed. It is emphasized that the exaggeration of the role of any scientific vector cannot contribute to the progress in this area of biology and medicine. It is shown on the example of heroin and ethanol that the study of their toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics is far from being completed. That complicates the understanding of the drug addiction and alcoholism development mechanisms. This situation is denoted as one of the paradoxes in modern narcology. Another paradox is examined in connection with the «dose- effect» relationship.. It is shown that the neurochemical pattern, which accompanies exposures to psycho-active substances, can be substantially modified with the procedure for narcotization (alcoholization). A similar uncertainty can require the standardization of some studies in narcology.
Keywords: toxicology, narcology, neurochemistry, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics
Environment chemical pollution can be persistent, and even virtually irremovable. For some chemicals in the workplace air, reliably safe low exposure levels are technically unattainable or presumably nonexistent. Further to decreasing harmful exposures to the lowest possible levels, the «biological prophylaxis» aims to enhance host’s protective mechanisms. In over 30 years in animal experiments modeling isolated or combined chronic or sub-chronic exposures to silica, asbestos, monazite, lead, chromium, arsenic, manganese, nickel, vanadium, nano silver, nano copper, formaldehyde, phenol, naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, were tested so-called «bio-prophylactic complexes» (BPCs) comprising innocuous substances with theoretically expected beneficial influence on the toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of those toxics. The BPCs tested up to now proved capable of mitigating systemic toxicity, cytotoxicity, fibrogenicity, and mutagenicity of the above-listed chemicals. Most of these BPCs were then subjected to controlled field trials involving restricted groups of volunteers. Once the effectiveness and safety of a BPC was established, it was recommended for practical use, first of all, in the most vulnerable population groups (children, pregnant women) and in the most harmful occupations.
Keywords: chemical substance, toxicity, biological prophylaxis
The article presents results of studies on general toxic and irritant action of nanoscale particles of silver, zinc and titanium dioxide in experiments on animals and alternative models ( livestock sperm, Ecolum bacteria and vessels of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane). Efficiency of using high sensitive alternative models is substantiated for screening assessment of general toxic and irritant action at the preliminary stage of general toxicological and irritant action investigations into nanoscale products .
Keywords: alternative toxicological models, nanoscale particles, livestock sperm, Ecolum bacteria, chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane
The impact of bio-insecticides Boverin, Entomophthora and Lepidicide on cellular and sub-cellular immune effectors elements in rat fetuses was investigated. Preparations immunotoxic effect on embryos at the cellular and sub-cellular levels was found out.
Keywords: bio-insecticides, embryo, immunotoxicity, embryotropic effect
The impact of vinyl chloride (inhalation exposure at a mean concentration of 1947 mg/m3 during 5 weeks) on the offspring of exposed male rats and intact female rats was studied. The examination of sexually mature offspring included studying behavior in the open field and DNA damage investigation using brain homogenate with DNAcomet assay. It is revealed an increased orienting-exploratory behavior and decrease in the locomotor activity as well as increased DNA damage in the nervous tissue cells as compared with the control animals group .
Keywords: vinyl chloride, white rats, offspring, behavior, DNA damage
Allergenicity and immunotoxicity of oscillococcinum preparation was experimentally studied. Immunization of guinea pigs with oscillococcinum in doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg according to a standard scheme or mixed with complete Freund’s adjuvant ( CFA) did not provoke a systemic anaphylactic reactions or delayed allergenic reactions in animals. A single administration of oscillococcinum per os in doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg to CBA strain mice did not cause significant changes in comparison with the control in the inflammation response to concanavalin A (Con.A). To assess oscillococcinum immunotoxic properties, the preparation was perorally administrated to mice in doses of 100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg for 14 days. Delivery of oscillococcinum in the dose of 500 mg/kg to F1 mice resulted in an authentic increase by 25.1% of thymus mass index. In F1 hybrid mice (CBA x C57BL/6), a course delivery of oscillococcinum induced an expressed increase of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity , in C57BL/6 strain mice it significantly stimulated humoral immune response . Thus, oscillococcinum in the dose range investigated does not produce allergenic and immunotoxic action, stimulates macrophage phagocytic activity and humoral response which could be considered one of the most important mechanisms of the preparation action used to cure flu and other acute respiratory viral infections.
Keywords: oscillococcinum preparation, systemic anaphylactic reaction, delayed hypersensitivity, inflammation response to concanavalin A, phagocythosis, hemi luminescence, cellular immune response, immunotoxicity
The combination of taurine (50 g/mole, 6.25g) with zinc diaspartate (1 g/mole, 0.35g) named «taucine-50», administrated in the rat stomach (0.50 g/kg over 10 days )increases the paracetamol-inhibited (administrated in the stomach 2.50 g/kg over 5 days) activity of succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), nicotinamine adenine nucleotide – dehydrogenase (NADH) and acidic phosphatase (ACPH) in the rat liver and decreases in plasma an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as elevated content of total bilirubin, its conjugated forms and cholesterol. Hepatoprotective effect of «taucin-20» (0.5 g/kg/day) is less pronounced.
Keywords: rats, paracetamol, hepatotoxic action, combination of taurine with zinc diaspartate, hepatoprotective action
In experiments on white rats, the main toxicometric parameters of bis(triphenylsilyl) chromate were established at single and repeated stomach and intraperitoneal administration. The character of the biological action of bis(triphenylsilyl) chromate with different delivery paths into the organism and levels of effective doses/concentrations are analogous to those of hexavalent chromium compounds. Based on these conclusions, TLV/TWA (Threshold limit value/time-weighted average)) of bis(triphenylsilyl) chromate in occupational air, tentative safe exposure level (TSEL) in atmospheric air of residential settings, tentative permissible levels (TPL) in water of water reservoirs were substantiated and approved at the level of magnitudes adopted for hexavalent chromium compounds in RF.
Keywords: hygienic regulation, hexavalent chromium, toxicity, white rats, kidneys, alveolar macrophages
Perspective trends in advancing modern toxicology are the development of alternative in vitro models, updating risk assessment methodology, elaboration of toxicogenomics, chemoinformatics, cellular technologies methods as well as computerized modelling of toxic effects to study modes of action at the cellular and gene levels.
Keywords: toxicology, chemicals, risk