The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Download PDF-version file for magazine # 4 '2014.
Based on information and analytical investigations carried out into chemicals properties with a view of their effect on the reproductive system and posterity development, a list of reprotoxicants was developed for inclusion in a new version of Sanitary Rules and Norms SanPin 184.108.40.2065-96 «Hygienic Requirements for the Conditions of Work of Women».
Keywords: chemical substance, fertility, reproductive function development of posterity, reprotoxicant
Effectiveness of hepatoprotector with peptide component molixan in treatment of heaviest acute intoxications with ethanol was investigated in heaviest cases of poisoning with ethanol based on 3-day survival, average expectancy –life, neurologic status, states of the organism certain vital functions. 40% ethanol solution was administrated intragastrically in doses of LD50, 1.5 LD50, l.75 LD50 and 2 LD50 (8, 12, 14 and 16 g/kg. Molixan was administrated intraperitoneally in a dose of 30 mg/kg or intranasally in a dose of 60 mg/kg. The effectiveness of the preparation was assessed with the following application schemes: preventive (single administration 1 hour before uptake of ethanol); medical and preventive (1 hour before and just after uptake of ethanol); early medical ( immediately after administration of ethanol and then once a day for 2 subsequent days) and delayed medical ( 30 minutes after administration of ethanol and then once a day for 2 subsequent days). It was found out that in case of poisoning with ethanol in doses of LD50 and 1.5 LD50, the preventive, combined, early and delayed medical applications of moloxan pose a protective effect on rats based on the survival indices ( 83 to 100% in experimental groups and 17 to 33% in control groups), high severity degree intoxications, rats ability to maintain the body temperature and frequency of respiratory movements. None of the molixan application schemes affected rats survival at heaviest acute poisoning with ethanol 1.75 LD50 and 2 LD50 doses, while the preventive, medical and preventive and early medical application schemes contributed to the increase of average expectancylife of perished rats. At intoxication caused by uptake of 1.5 LD50 ethanol, molixan manifested an equal protective effect evaluated as per survival criteria and impact on poisoned rats neurologic status at the intraperitoneal and intranasal applications.
Keywords: ethanol, acute toxicity, molixan, therapy, survival, rats
Combination of taurine (5g/Mol; 6.25g) with Zinc diaspartate ( 1g/Mol; 0.35 g) –named «taucin-50» (intraperitoneal uptake (500 mg/kg/ 10 days) increases activity of dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in rats kidneys inhibited with gentamicin (intraperitoneal uptake 60mg/kg/ 10 days), reduces urea elevated concentration in plasma on account of its increased excretion diaspartate with urine, leads to the appearance of urea acid in it. «Taucin-20» (250 mg/kg) has a lesser renal protective action.
Keywords: rats, intoxication with gentamicin, combination of taurin and zinc diaspartate, renal protective action
Chronic exposure to low doses of cadmium in the antenatal period leads to the development of negative reactions in the rat liver (generation F1) within the first 30 day of investigation. In the subsequent time periods of observation, a reversible character of changes was noted.
Keywords: cadmium, rats, metallotheoneins, malondialdehyde
Bсl- 2 expression was studied in brain structures at exposure to silver-based polymer nanobiocomposites in sub-acute 9-day experiments in white outbred rats. It was found out that the amount of expressed nerve cells authentically increases and nerve tissue undergoes stricture disorders at exposure to test substances in different doses.
Keywords: Nano silver, arabinogalaktan, polyvinyl triazole, immunohistochemistry, Bсl-2, morphology
The detection of nerve agents or their fluorine derivatives, reactivated from phosphorylated adducts in blood (plasma, serum) with blood proteins using fluoride ion action, is a commonly recognized method to identify human exposure to nerve agents. In the present work, a highly sensitive detection of sarin and soman, as well as fluorine derivative of Russian VX (RVX-G) was obtained by optimization of sample preparation procedures and use of gas chromatography with high selective detectors. Solid-phase micro extraction was successfully used in the soman analysis. Solid-phase extraction with a highly cross-linked styrene and methacrylate copolymers was found effective in the analysis of soman, sarin, and RVX-G. Advantages of tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry in the detection of nerve agents and their fluorine derivatives reactivated from blood protein adducts were demonstrated.
Keywords: organophosphorous nerve agents, retrospective analysis, reactivation, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
A toxicological study was conducted of the biological action of a domestic preparation (GYALREPAIR -10) based on a modified hyaluronic acid in albino rats. It was found out that the drug has no adverse effect on the animal organism : haematological, biochemical and other indices characterizing the state of systems and organs of animals exposed to the test compounds had no statistically significant differences from similar control indicators. Based on the current stage of research we can talk about the possibility of using non-toxic compounds in reconstructive surgery to replace the soft tissue in trauma and to replace the joint fluid. This topical drug can be actually used in such areas of medicine as stomatology and cosmetology.
Keywords: hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid, Gyalrepair, synovial fluid, arthritis, trauma
Chemical potentials for iso toxic concentrations of gaseous substances in three homologous series were calculated: alcohols, hydrocarbons, benzene and its derivatives.
Keywords: toxicity, non-electrolytes, chemical potential, activity, «Ferguson principle», homologous series, toxicity prediction
Nickel is an essential element-in low doses it stimulates the development of plants and in high doses produces toxic effect. The impact of nickel sulfate in different concentrations (1, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/l) on fruits germination and development of seedlings of shortgrass helophyte Sparganium emersum was studied in laboratory experiments (the first stage of experiments). It was shown that in the concentration range from 1 to 25 mg/l , a tendency to a reduced laboratory germination was observed and from 50 to 250 mg/l this indicator authentically decreased. It was determined that the nickel sulfate toxicity limit for fruits germination is located between 250 and 500 mg/l. Seedlings only germinated at 1 and 10 mg/l doses of nickel sulfate. The toxic effect appeared in seedlings in the form of reduced sizes of the top and secondary roots. Investigations into the nickel sulfate impact in concentrations of 1, 25 and 50 mg/l on the normal development of seedlings (not exposed preliminary to nikel sulfate second stage of experiments) showed that at the concentration of 1mg/l they form adaptive mechanisms and at 25 and 50 mg/l they perish .
Keywords: Sparganium emersum Rehm, nickel sulfate, germination of fruits, development of seedlings
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