The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Over the last years a noticeable reduction of a number of patients admitted to hospital with acute chemical poisonings was observed , by 20.1% on an average. Up to 57% of hospitalization were poisonings with substances of no accepted medical use , predominantly with alcohol (43.8 on the average). About 12.8% were patients of elderly age, lethality among whom reached up to 9.98% compared to 4.47% in the group of up to 60 year people. . Lethality from poisonings with alcohol also lowered by 47.1% over last 10 years. Main causes of lethal poisonings are alcohol, carbon oxide, narcotics, the latter shows a tendency towards an increase. In Russia centers for acute poisonings operate in 38 territories, encompassing less than 50% of the country’s population. In the present economic situation, the urgent problem is to create a network of information and advisory toxicological centers in the territories with a low population size which would afford to provide a toxicological assistance in any venue of the country without requiring significant financial expenses.
Keywords: lethality, morbidity, information and advisory toxicology centers, organization of a specialized medical poisoning first aid, poisonings
Detoxficacation therapy is the main component in the treatment of pronounced manifestations of acute poisoning. At toxicogenic stage, it is the most effective when integrated with the use of efferent (sorption and dialysis) methods of artificial detoxification, gut lavage, and physico- chemical hemotherapy, including ultraviolet, laser, magnetic chemotherapy and sodium hypochlorite infusions. In the rehabilitation period, the most optimal is the therapy course using a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. A detoxification approach allows to obtain a rapid correction of impaired homeostasis indicators, to reduce severity of endotoxicosis and with that the elimination of exogenous toxicants from the body occurs more than 3-fold faster. In some cases surgical and endoscopic interventions are required to remove a toxicant depot. As a result, mortality rate, incidence and severity of complications, specifically infectious and septic ones, significantly decrease and the recovery period substantially shortens.
Keywords: acute poisoning, artificial detoxification methods, complex detoxification, physic-chemical hemotherapy
The influence of exposure to chemicals on the development of tuberculosis was studied in experiment to investigate immunotoxic properties of chemicals mixture. A fter a chronic exposure (during 9 month) of guinea pigs in a housing room to cadmium, lead, chromium, TCDD and PCBs in doses that correspond to threshold values or lesser, they were infected by Mycobacterium bovis 8. In animals that were exposed to chemicals mixture, were observed a progressing loss of weight, intensive allergic responses to tuberculin sub-threshold doses, complex allergen of atypical mycobacteria and severe development of tuberculosis infection, that probably is caused by toxic influence on the immune system mechanisms controlling mycobacterium reproduction.
Keywords: experimental tuberculosis, immune system, metals, POPs
It was established in experiments in inbred mice that organophosphorus compound (dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate) administrated 2 hours prior to modeling sepsis (intraperitoneal injection of E. coli) significantly reduces the mortality of mice in the consequence of activation of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( 7nAChR) by phagocytic-monocytic system of acetylcholine and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- , IL-1 and IL-6) in blood.
Keywords: alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( 7nAChR), cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, organophosphorus compounds, pro-inflammatory cytokines, sepsis
The offspring‘s biological full-value has been evaluated after intragroup crossing of inbred albino male and female rats identically exposed to nanosized and microsized titanium dioxide. It was found out that a prolonged contact of parent animals with titanium dioxide does not impact on mating ability and fertility of animals, but leads to negative abnormalities in postnatal development of their joint offspring.
Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, microparticles, reproductive toxicity
General toxicity, including acute and sub-chronic toxicity, of Hirudo medicinalis leeches extract- based drugs for transdermal application was studied, in white nonlinear rats and mice. The study proved the safety of drugs based on the Hirudo medicinalis leeches extract.
Keywords: medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, gel, ointment, transdermal application, mouse, rat, acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, general toxic effect
Adverse effects were studied and critical organs and systems exposed to nanosized silica daily administrated intragastrically through a feeding tube were identified in 90 day experiment in white Wistar rats. NOAEL was substantiated. It was found out that the test substance may cause immune irritation , hemotoхiс, cytolytic and inflammatory effects. Critical organs and systems for this compound in the sub-acute experiment were the immune system, liver, gastrointestinal tract. NOAEL was 7.3 mg / kg.
Keywords: silica, nanoparticles, subacute experiment, critical organs and systems, NOAEL
A toxicological evaluation of an antihistamine preparation Loratadine was conducted. It was found out that based on the criterion for acute peroral toxicity , Loratadine refers to moderately hazardous substances, shows an average irritation effect when contacting conjunctiva, produces impact on spermatogenesis functional indicators. The substance has a strong cumulative activity, is slightly or moderately toxic on the organism level ( daphnia vitality) and cellular level ( bull sperm cells).
Keywords: Loratadine, toxicological evaluation, cumulative activity, irritation effect, spermatogenesis
The number of micronuclei, amitotic index and leukocytes balance were investigated in peripheral blood and immune competent organs of one year old roach fed with stuffing of fishes captured in the Sheksna and Molozh stretches of water in the Rybinsk reservoir ( concentration of PCB in the feed was 50.8 ng/g and 3.7 ng//g ,dry weight accordingly). Data obtained prove PCB mutagenic activity and show non-specific response of fishes protective systems to the pollution.
Keywords: roach, polychlorinated biphenyls, micronuclei, leukocytes, neutrophils phagocytic activity
Results are presented of a comparative investigation into immune and physiological indicators in the bream Abramis brama inhabiting various parts of the Rybinsk reservoir differing in levels of anthropogenic burden. The analysis is based on antimicrobial properties of blood serum and somatic indices in immune competent organs. Fishes in polluted parts of the Sjeksna stretch of water were distinguished from those in the deemed non polluted Volzhsk stretch of water by low values of bactericidal activity level of blood serum and somatic indices in kidneys and spleen, high level of immune deficient fishes and liver somatic index.
Keywords: bream, immune and physiological indicators, Rybinsk reservoir