The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
Data about the chemical situation in the Russian Federation were presented. The main objectives of prevention and minimization of risks from exposure of humans and their life environment to chemical factors are the development and implementation of state-of-art methods and means to protect population and the life environment from adverse effects of hazardous chemicals; substantiation and performance of prophylactic measures among population groups at risk; carrying out fundamental and applied r esearches to develop new chemical t echnologies reducing risk from adverse exposures to an acceptable level; replacement of physically time-worn and morally obsolescent equipment by more up-to-date; higher provision of the large population and personnel at chemically hazardous facilities with personal protective equipment.
Keywords: chemical safety, prophylactics, sanitary and epidemiological well-being
A systemic examination using cluster analysis was performed of clinical and laboratory data from case-records of 1 to 5 year old 192 children who received medical treatment for acute poisoning with psychopharmacological preparations at a children’s toxicological center. Investigations conducted showed that a systemic assessment of nascent changes in the organism allows to identify dominant systems in the process of the response realization as well as sequence of their triggering at different disease stages. It makes it possible to physicians to influence more effectively individual parts of the functional system developed, and by this speeding up the adaptation of the organism to new existence conditions and to perform a differential approach to the prescription of detoxification therapy.
Keywords: cluster analysis, functional system, poisonings in children, systemic response
The purpose of the work consisted in comparing the influence of alcoholic and HIV-intoxications on the status of biological membranes, using data of the blood serum phospholipid spectrum. Parameters of blood serum lipid spectrum were investigated in 50 healthy persons, 50 alcoholic patients and 50 patients with 5 year duration of HIV-infection stage 3. All observed persons were at the age of 20 to 55 years. Alcoholic and HIVintoxications cause in many respects similar changes i n the status of biological membranes. An increased permeability of membranes and the development of cholestasis are observed. The mechanism of the biological membranes destruction at alcoholic and HIV-intoxications is different. At alcoholic intoxication the destruction of membranes can be caused by an increased activity of phospholipases under influence of alcohol, and at HIV-intoxication, on the contrary, on account of their decreased activity. On the whole, intrahepatic cholestasis is representative in HIV- infected patients with stage 3.
Keywords: alcoholism, HIV-infection, intoxication
Systemic oral toxicity of both nano-TiO2 water dispersions containing a mixture of rutile and anatase particles modifications, and its macroanalogue in the form of the chemical reagent «Titanium (IV) Oxide, C.P.» was studied in a two-month experiment in outbred white rats males. It was found that nano-TiO2 administrated in an equal mass dose (100 mg/kg/day) causes fewer adverse effects on the whole organism.
Keywords: microparticles, nanoparticles, systemic toxicity, titanium dioxide
It was established in experiments in outbred albino rats that sub-acute intoxication by 1,2- dichloroethane (0.3 LD50 daily for 3 days ) decreases parameters of the cellular immune response, Th1- cell function to a greater extent than those of humoral immune responses and Th2- lymphocyte activity , reduces the content of immunoregulatory cytokines IFN- , IL-2, IL-4 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13 in blood; does not virtually affect the concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL- 10 but increases the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL -6.
Keywords: 1, 2 -dichloroethane, Th1-, Th2lymphocytes, immune toxicity, cytokines
The following method is suggested to simultaneously identify 6 quinolone antibiotics in food products by high performance liquid chromatography with diode matrix detector including enoxacin, danofloxacin, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid, using for this purpose a simplified, fast and safe QuEChERS sample preparation. Sample weight being 5 g, antibiotics identification limits were 0.002-0.04 mg/kg. Relative standard deviation in analysis results does not exceed 0.09. The duration of the analysis is about 1 h.
Keywords: food products, high performance liquid chromatography with diode matrix detector (HPLC-DMD), quinolone antibiotics
Air quality is a parameter of primary importance when it deals with estimation of population health. Therefore the improvement of the air quality remains a crucial national (and international) task. Moscow is one of the major cities in the world with population over 10 million people. It is a large industrial center. Thousands of the most various compounds appear in the atmosphere of Moscow every day due to functioning of numerous industrial enterprises, transport, 20 heat and power stations, construction activity, etc. Official environmental laboratories carry on monitoring of the atmospheric pollution on the regular basis. However only few compounds are monitored: inorganic gases, dust, vanadium oxide, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, phenol, formaldehyde, benzo[a]pyrene. Based on the GC/MS studies of the snow samples collected in Moscow in 2011-2013, more than 500 organic compounds were identified and their levels were estimated. In the present paper the main attention is attracted besides classic xenobiotics to emergency anthropogenic contaminants which are rarely taken into consideration by ecologists.
Keywords: atmospheric pollutants, ecotoxicants, GC/MS, snow analysis, Moscow, priority pollutants
The article is devoted to the principles and approaches to the hazard classification of mixtures inrelation to human health in accordance with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS).
Keywords: chemicals, classification, labeling, hazard, toxicity