The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The survey is dedicated to issues of searching for and using biomarkers in diagnostics of different diseases underscoring their complicated use in toxicology, particularly in toxicology of organophosphorous compounds. Investigation stages in searching biomarkers are described as well as general principles of assessment of their diagnostic significance. Approaches to the diagnostics of intoxications with organophosphorous compounds are featured and ways of increasing the effectiveness of biomarkers search for the diagnosis of organophosphorous intoxications are suggested.
Keywords: biomarker, diagnostics, organophospforus compounds
The analysis of acute poisonings on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiisk Autonomous Areа-Yurga conducted over the period of 2007-2011 allowed to assess the dynamics and structure of acute poisonings. The retrospective analysis encompasses 8777 incidents of poisonings in adults and children. The analysis showed a trend of an increasing number of acute chemical trauma along with an increased proportion of acute poisonings in children and prevalent intentional poisonings, the greatest lethality in the group of poisonings with alcohol , narcotic drugs and psychotropic preparations and mortality in the same groups of people and in the group of poisonings by carbonous oxide.
Keywords: epidemiology, poisonings
Investigations into effects of toxicological interaction between active preparations composing a combination has a principle importance within the safety assessment of a combined pharmacotherapy. To assess a toxicological interaction, investigations using a bull-sperm-based in vitro express-method were conducted. Parameters of cytotoxic effects (IC50) of metamizole sodium, ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol, diphenhydramine, caffeine and some combinations of these medicinal preparations were determined. Metamizole sodium showed the most expressed cytotoxic effect on this model, and caffeine manifested the least expressed effect. A possible toxic interaction between medicinal agents at their combined administration was assessed based on experimental and tentative cytotoxicity indicators. It was established that the in vitro method for investigation of cytotoxicity is feasible to assess the safety of individual medicinal preparations and medicinal combinations.
Keywords: cytotoxicity, medicinal preparations, toxicological ineraction
Quetiapine Fumarate is an anti-psychotic neuroleptic used to treat schizophrenia with productive and negative symptomatology. Cases of intoxications with casual and intentional overdoses of quetiapine are described. Methodologies for quetiapine isolation in urine, blood, liver, kidneys are developed for chemical-toxicological investigation of biological objects. It was shown that TLC, HLPC, GLC methods may be used to detect quetiapine. UV spectrum does not have characteristic absorption maxima and therefore it is necessary to calculate the second derivative of the spectral curve to find out positions of maximum light absorbance and reduction of influence of endogenic compounds extracted from biological objects . The HLPC method is proposed for a quantitative determination of quetiapine. Thanks to methods developed, it is possible to detect and determine the amount of quetiapine in relation to the given dose in urine 80.8±2.5% , in blood 72.4 ±3.7%, in liver 58.9±4.1%, in kidneys 57.7±3.9%. The methods are suggested for the purposes of forensic chemistry.
Keywords: quetiapine fumarate. Intoxications, analysis
A cytochemical analysis of leukocytes in guinea pigs exposed to sulfur dioxide inhalation was performed. The finding of the study was metabolic stimulation of neutrophils in the form of increasing intensity of response to phoshatase, glycogen and lipids . Along with it, changes in lymphocytes enzymes activity reflecting the state of oxidative and hydrolytic processes were of a differentiated character manifesting the interrelation with a lysosomes specific reacting.
Keywords: leukocytes, metabolism, enzymes, cytochemistry, sulfur dioxide
Experimental studies of the biological action of a domestic preparation based on of hyaluronic acid (HA) and boron were performed in white rats. It was established that the drug did not have adverse effects on animals. Haematological, biochemical, and other indicators characterizing the state of systems and organs in animals exposed to neutron capture therapy did not show statistically significant differences from those of the control. Based on the first stage of the studies, the use of this non-toxic compound could be suggested for solving problems of neutron capture therapy.
Keywords: hyaluronic acid, boron, neutron capture therapy, toxicity
A toxicological evaluation of a decongestant L-Lysine aescinat was performed. It was found out that L-Lysine aescinat refers to moderately hazardous substances, produces resorptive and toxic, mild local irritation effects on skin, expressed irritation effect on eye mucosa, shows a mild cumulative activity and does not pose an actual hazard of the development of delayed effects. MAC of L-Lysine aescinat in occupational air is adopted at the level of 2.0 mg/m3, aerosol, hazard class 3 with a note +«requires a special eye protection»
Keywords: L-Lysine, aescinat, toxicological evaluation, MAC in occupational air
A complex version of the computer-based intellectual predicting system was developed within which a standard system was completed with a quantum-chemical module for generating metabolites and calculating their electronic parameters and the computerbased intellectual predicting system -consideration was supplemented with an analysis of numeral parameters. That way, the complex system is based on the combination of logical-combinatorial methods and methods of quantum chemistry used to simulate interaction processes between substances and the organism and in particular biotransformation processes under the influence of enzymes systems. The system’s algorithm is illustrated on the example of predicting carcinogenicity of aliphatic halogenated alkanes.
Keywords: toxicity and hazard predicting, biotransformation, quantum-chemical parameters
Toxicity of corro sion inhibitors Azol CI-130, Azol 5010, brand A and Azol 5010, brand B was assessed in standard test-objects: phytoplanktonic organisms –Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp) Breb; zooplanktonic organism Daphnia magna Straus and fishes, oneday old fishes (baby fishes)-Poecillia reticulate Peters. To assess toxic effects on hydrobionts, were used indicators of median lethal concentrations (LC50) characterizing changes by 50% in survival (death) of organisms for a determined period of time-24,48 and 96h (LC50/24; 48; 96h). Based on the assessment results, it was found out that corrosion inhibitors Azol CI-130 and Azol 5010, brand B refer to moderately toxic substances and corrosion inhibitor Azol 5010, brand A to highly toxic ones.
Keywords: preparations, phytoplankton, zooplankton, toxicity