The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of mortality rate among population following acute intoxications of chemical etiology in the Omsk region over the period 2002 to 2011.The dynamics of the population’s mortality rate from acute exogenous intoxications is the most important medico-demographic characteristics of untimely social losses. Investigation of the mortality rate and structure in large population allows to determine regularities of changes in medical and demographic indicators in the region, to lay down main causes of the deteriorating situation, develop a concept of guidelines to ensure chemical safety of population in the Omsk region.
Keywords: acute intoxications, mortality among population, chemical safety
The influence of acute tissue hypoxia on the development of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome was studied and markers of its development in patients with acute poisoning by neurotropic drugs were identified. It is shown that in the context of hypoxia in patients with acute poisoning, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome is formed, leading to the development of severe sepsis and MOF, predictors of which are the increase in IL-8 and IL-10 levels in blood as soon as 1 day after grade as well as increased levels of IL- 6 and PCT 3 days after the toxic exposure.
Keywords: systemic inflammatory response syndrome, cytokines, neurotropic preparations
A survey featuring up-to-date ideas about binding ability of macromolecules of the organism in relation to xenobiotics is presented. Existing and intensively developing methods for assessment of interaction between macromolecules and xenobiotics are highlighted in detail. General recommendations to perform analyses are set forth.
Keywords: fractionation, plasma, binding
A single administration of 40 μg multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to C57BL/6 mice via pharyngeal aspiration led to an acute local inflammatory response with the development of the fibrotic process in the lung tissue. Inflammatory changes were characterized by a significant increase ( compared to control) in the number of neutrophils in the lavage fluid, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF- 24 hours post exposure. The fibrogenic potential of investigated MWCNT has been shown, confirmed by high levels of TGF-b from the 7th day and untill the end of the experiment. Granulomas formation and fibrosis areas were revealed in the lungs on 28 day post-exposure. The data obtained do not exclude a possibility of systemic responses. Assuming potential health risk for workers exposed to MWCNT aerosol at the workplace, further studies are needed to determine the hazard class and threshold levels along with the necessity to refer MWNTs as specific allotropic modifications of carbon to substances (aerosols) with mainly fibrogenic activity.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fibrosis, in vivo, pulmonary exposure
Concentration of metallotioneins (MT) was determined as 14.0±0.9 ng/ml using the method of binding cadmium in a group of people in whose blood plasma the content of zinc, copper, lead, manganese, cadmium did not exceed reference values and mercury was in trace amounts. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the content of MT in the same group of patients was determined as 10.4±1.1 ng/ml. The level of metallotioneins (MT) in patients with elevated concentrations of manganese and mercury in blood was authentically higher which was proved by both methods of analysis. Results obtained may serve as a basis for further monitoring of MT in the blood of people as one of biomarkers of exposure to heavy metals.
Keywords: metallotioneins, the blood plasma, method of determination, mercury, manganese
The impact of the synthetic analogue of melathonin epiphyseal hormone in doses of 5 to 50 mg/kg on the incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of rats poisoned with cyclophosphamide in a dose of 200 mg/kg was investigated. It was experimentally shown that a single prophylactic administration of melathonin 30 minutes before cyclophosphamide uptake authentically lowers the number of aberrations in actively proliferating cells from 9.8±1.2% to 6.7±1.0%. As possible mechanisms of the melathnin cytoprotective action, is considered its influence on antioxidant activity of cells and tissues and on proliferative and functional activity of cells. For example, it was shown that melathonin reduces the manifestation of oxidative stresses caused by cyclophosphamide and also evens retardation of the leukocytes migration activity in human peripheral blood and pro liferative activity of lien cells in rats.
Keywords: chromosome aberrations, melathonin, yclophosphamide, oxidative stress, proliferative activity
Based on the short-term test determination of minimal effective ( threshold) concentrations of chemicals with different chemical structure having nephrotoxic potency, a new method for determination of their hygienic standards in the work place air was suggested.
Keywords: biomarkers of nephrotoxic potency, hygienic regulation, minimal effective concentration at short-term inhalation exposure
A method of detection of residual imidaclopide and thiarclopide in bio objects (blood, animal internal organs and tissues) with a high performance liquid chromatography was developed.
Keywords: imidaclopride, internal organs and tissues, method of high performance liquid chromatography, thiarcloprid
Are submitted data on changes in the composition and activity of malate dehydrogenase molecular forms in water microorganisms under the influence of cefazolin depending on the concentration and incubation time under aerobic-anaerobic conditions. It was found out that malate dehydrogenase cytoplasmatic molecular forms are more sensitive to the toxic action of antibiotics. The activity of enzymes depends on toxicant concentrations.
Keywords: activated sludge, cefazolin, malate dehydrogenase
The assessment of toxicity of corrosion inhibitors «Azol 5040» and «Azol 5041» was performed for a standard fish test-object: a day old guppy baby fishes ( Poecillia reticulate Peters). To assess toxic effect on fishes, indicators of median lethal concentrations (LC50) were used which characterize 50% changes in fish survival (death) for a determined period-96h (LD50/96h). Based on assessment results of preparations toxicity, it was established that corrosion inhibiter «Azol 5040» can be allocated to low toxic substances and corrosion inhibiter «Azol 5041» refers to moderately toxic substances.
Keywords: preparations, fish, young fishes, toxicity