The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
While comparing 48 patients having clinical symptoms of poisoning by Clozapine with its threshold, critical and lethal levels, it was shown that it is necessary not only to take into account an effective concentration of Clozapine in the blood serum but also obligatorily effective concentrations of its pharmacologically active metabolites- Norclozapine and nitrogen-containing oxide.
The study is dedicated to the influence of alcohol and bacterial infection on the state of biological membranes. To determine the membrane state, phospholipids fractions in blood serum were studied as it is known that phospholipids enter into the composition of enterocytes membranes and accordingly any changes in their content in the membrane lead to changes in their content in blood. Parameters of phospholipid fractions in blood serum were studied in 50 healthy people, 50 patients with acute alcohol-based gastroenteritis and 50 patients with acute infectious gastroenteritis.
In experiments on mice SHR, acute toxicity of Fe3O4-based nanoparticles and nanocomplex [DNA+Fe3O4] created at RSCRST was determined. Doses 2,4,6,8 and 10 mmol/kg were tested. Investigation results showed a low toxicity of the preparations. 100% death of animals was not observed for either dose. When testing paramagnetics Fe3O4 , a median lethal dose (LD50) was 18.8 mmol/kg for females and 30 mmol/kg for males. [DNA+Fe3O4] tested, LD50 was 11.2 mmol/kg for females and 11.5 mmol/kg for males.
It was established in experiments on non-inbred rats that chronic intoxication with acetonitrile (30 days, daily subcutaneous 0.05 LD50) equally reduces immune responses associated with the function of Th1-, Th2-and B-lymphocytes, decreases activity of natural killer-cells, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and reduces levels of immunoregulatory, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines IFN- , IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 in blood.
Results on accumulation of chemical elements in dust fractions PM 2,5, PM 10 were obtained. A significantly exceeded MAC value of chemicals in the dust composition compared to the concentration of the dust itself was established. Results were received of cytomorphological investigations of cells in the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and in the cheek buccal epithelium in 108 children of preschool age and in 89 children of school age living n industrial towns, control group was of 60 people. It was noted that nasal and buccal epitheliocytes are sensitive to different exogenous and endogenic exposures of ecofactors which leads to functional changes in those cells where different local disturbances are observed.
The excretion profiles of biomarkers of blister agents after intoxication of rats by lewisite and piryte- lewisite mixture at a dose of 1.6 mg/kg were studied. The possibility of determination of lewisite markers in the organism after antidotal therapy with unithiol was assessed. It was found out that the excretion of 2-chlorovinylarsonous acid (CVAA) the first two days after unithiol treatment develops more actively as compared with that in the absence of antidotal therapy. It was shown that the most reliable biomarker to establish a retrospective exposure of an organism to sulfur mustard-lewisite mixtures is CVAA which was detected with confidence in urine 77 days after exposure, while sulfur mustard metabolites such as thiodiglycol, thiodiglycol sulfoxide, and -lyase metabolites, could not be detected by existing procedures even 7 days after exposure.
As a result of a monitoring study of a range of psychoactive substances used by the Khanty-Mansiisk Autonomous Area-Yugra population for non-medical purposes, 18 new phenyl ethylamine derivatives were revealed including Methylone Mephedrone, MDPV, 3-FMC, Butylone, 2С-С, 4-МЕС, PVP, MPPP, Pentylone, Pentedrone, Methedrone, 2C-E, 2C-I 2C-B, PMMA, MDPBP and pFA. Mass-spectrums and chromatographic retention linear indices were obtained for the identified substances.
Toxicity of technological additives «Litoplast 1AI» and «Litoplast 2AI» for grinding intensification was evaluated on fish standard test-objects: one-day guppy baby-fish (Poecillia reticulate Peters) and one of the year carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To assess toxic effect on fish, indicators of median lethal concentrations (LC50) characterizing survival changes ( death) by 50% for a determined time period-96 h ( LC50/96h) were applied. Based on evaluation results of the preparations toxicity, it was established that grinding intensifications technological additives «Litoplast 1AI» and «Litoplast 2AI» refer to very slight toxic substances.
Results of a comparative study on immune and physiological indicators in Caucasus roach back Leuciscus cephalus inhabiting Caucasus rivers are presented. The study is based on the analysis of antimicrobial properties of blood serum, content of non-specific immune complexes and somatic indices of immunocompetent organs. Fishes in the river Mzymty differed from those in Abkhazia rivers in increased somatic indicators of immunocompetent organs, functional state of humoral immune factors, high share of immunodeficiency in individual fishes.