The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The article describes main scientific results of the laboratory of industrial toxicology and occupational health at the Institute for Occupational Health of NAMS of Ukraine. Results of experimental and hygienic studies, the importance of findings for the theory and practice of modern preventive medicine are highlighted. A special attention is paid to the data obtained in the course of the scientific development of a concept of effects of low intensity chemical factors, and the definition of principles and criteria for assessment of norms, pre-pathology and pathology of chemical genesis. Means for preventing chronic intoxication by heavy metals are identified and examined. The significance and position of alternative methods in toxicological еxperiments, including the assessment of toxicity of nanoparticles and nanomaterials are considered.
Results of the investigation into lipid and carbon hydrate metabolism in rats liver exposed to inhalation of acetone vapors (200 mg/m3 ) over 3 weeks under conditions of high humidity (91-93%) are presented. Intoxication with acetone was accompanied with disorders in liver metabolic reactions that manifested in the increase of the content of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, lysophospholipids, saturated fatty acids, as well as in the decrease of level of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserin, blood glucose and oxidized pyridine nucleotides. High humidity exacerbates acetone toxic effect on the liver.
A comparative characteristics of the mercury content in internal organs of albino rats and absorbed dose of metal in the early and delayed period after exposure to vapors of metallic mercury and sulema is presented in the article.
After 20 repeated intra-abdominal administrations of uniform-size (50 nm) silver or gold nanoparticles in doses of 10mg/kg while analyzing polymorphism amplified fragment lengths of genomic DNA, the enhancement of DNA fragmentation was shown in nucleus-containing blood cells, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidneys, but not in musculoskeletal tissue, at that, this genotoxic action is more pronounced for nano-silver than for nano-gold. As to the exposure of the organism to a complex of differently-targeting bioprotectors, genotoxicity of nano-silver appeared significantly more weakened.
The excretion of short single-wall carbon nanotubes- (SSWCNT-COOH) with breast milk was studied after a single intravenous administration using as model white outbred rats . The distribution of SSWCNTCOOH was established in vitals of the rat offspring which received nanotubes with breast milk during the lactation period and major pharmacokinetic characteristics of SSWCNT-COOH were evaluated. To establish a concentration of SSWCNT-COOH in biological samples, a radioactive labeled preparation H3- SSWCNT-COOH was used.
Data are presented about concentrations of active and inactive Carbamazepine metabolites in blood serum of 52 patients with acute intoxication with carbamazepine at its effective concentrations corresponding to threshold, critical and lethal levels. It was established that the increase of an effective carbamazepine concentration within limits of critical and lethal values leads to accumulation of epoxy KБ- 10-11 in blood serum which produces an adverse effect on intoxication clinical symptoms. It was shown that a toxicometric evaluation of acute poisonings by carbamazepine must be performed with account taken of not only its effective concentration but also of the epoxy KБ-10-11 level in blood serum.
In experiments on white rats, the influence of the anti-virus preparation Kagocel on the generative function was studied. It was found out that a long-lasting daily peroral administration of this preparation to experimental animals did not produce an adverse effect on animals gonads and their fertility which is proved out by results of morphological analysis of testicles and spermatozoons functional status in males, as well as by results of the evaluation of the preparations exposure on embryogenesis and on the offspring of rats to which the preparation was long administrated during the premating period.
Ketorolac is one of the most widely applied analgesics. Under certain conditions it can cause sharp poisonings including those with lethal outcome. In this connection methods of its isolation, identification (methods TLC, HPLC, GH/MS) and quantitative definition (method HPLC) in urine are developed. Along with it, the problem of investigation into the dynamics of concentrations changes in urine was solved. As a result of the research, it is established that the greatest concentration of ketorolac in urine is reached after 5 hours, and the presence of ketorolac in urine can be established by means of a developed analysis scheme within 27 hours.
Ecotoxicological conditions of the north-eastern part of the Black Sea were reviewed based on scientific references over the period of 1979 to 2010. The review demonstrates that dramatic changes in the content of pollutants in sea waters and the bottom sediments were not observed over a long-term period. At present the content of oil carbohydrates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, heavy metals remains at the level of previous years.
The sustainability of wheat seedlings to lead exposure in a wide dose range was investigated. A non-monotonous character of the dependence of all indicators under investigation (lipid peroxidation intensity, growth processes, pigment content, stability to hyperosmotic shock) on lead concentrations was demonstrated. It was found out that a significant linear disruption of a number of seedlings indicators such as 2,3-fold increase of lipid peroxidation, 2,8-fold reduction of the root system length against the control value ) was only observed in the range of sub-lethal lead concentrations. At lower toxicant doses, most of indicators under investigation changed within limits of 50% against the control level. It was established that sub-lethal doses of lead concentrations induced in the first place breakdown in lipid peroxidation intensity and growth disorders.
Are analyzed international approaches and primary areas of studies on identification of adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on human health and the environment and ways of minimizing them.