The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The article takes stock of results achieved by the Russian register of potentially hazardous chemical and biological substances in its 20-year information and analytical activity
«Esterase status» is an important indicator characterizing individual responses of the organism to organophosphorous compounds (Ops) exposure. More and more data are being accumulated in relation to its adequate interpretation taking into account a number of additional toxic and pharmacodynamic factors. The analysis of recent reference data related to this issue is presented in the article. Proposals to extend the range of indicators characterizing the «Esterase status» is laid down.
Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology, St.Petersburg The interaction of soman with two tyrosine binding sites on the albumin Tyr-411 and Tyr-150 surface was evaluated by a method of molecular modeling. Processes of binding four soman stereoisomers on the albumin binding sites were characterized by a molecular docking method and the influence of neighboring amino acid residues on binding effectiveness was evaluated. The stability of soman and albumin complexes was verified by a molecular dynamic method.
Inhibition of neurotoxic target esterase (NTE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the 9S fraction of mice brain homogenate was studied by a well known neuropathic organophosphorus (OP) compound O,O-dipropyldichlorovinyl phosphate and two model dialkylphosphates. Inhibition of AChE and NTE activitties in mice brain was also studied 1 h after the intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of the same compounds. It is shown that differences in susceptibility to the OP-induced delayed neuropathic effects in mice as compared with chickens are not associated with differences in the sensitivity of the target enzyme NTE. The possibility of using mice for biochemical assessment of the OP compounds neuropathic potential was demonstrated.
An experimental evaluation of acute toxicity of domestic synthetic isoflavonoid genistein was conducted in males and females of outbred white mice and F1 mice –hybrid males, strain ( CBA x C57B1) at various routes of administration. It was established that the preparation under investigation refers to hazard class III- moderately toxic substances.
A peroral administration of potassium cyanide (PCN) over a month in daily doses of 1.30 mg/kg (1/10 LD50 ) and 0.65 mg/kg (1/20 LD50) induced a stable inhibition of myeloperoxidase at a parallel stimulation of acid phosphatase, as well as phase dose-dependent changes in alkali phosphatase reactions and in non-specific esterase. Dose-dependent differences in hydrolases reaction were also observed during the recovery period 10 days after the exposure terminated.
The influence of industrial pollutants on water organoleptic properties, general sanitary conditions of water reservoirs and warm-blooded organisms (lipid metabolism, nervous system functions, electrolyte balance and excretion function of white rat kidneys) was experimentally studied at increased water color magnitudes on the example of flotation reagents, specific pollutants present in ore mining. It was found out that water natural humic acids increase threshold concentration of pollutants with respect to their influence on water odor at 20°C and at 60°C they do not, while increasing water pollution stability, raising the magnitude of no-effect-level concentration of pollutants with respect to sanitary and toxicological indicators of harmfulness
To assess the practical effectiveness of the current 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) with respect to toxicological nosology, diagnosis codes of the 10th edition were analyzed and collated in 6421 patients admitted to the Republican Toxicological Center in 2009-2011.The analysis results showed a significant number of gaps and contradictions in the current edition. The outcome of the investigation conducted allowed to develop detailed proposals for optimization of toxicological diagnoses subdivisions that could be of help to the working team entrusted with the revision of the ICD 10th edition.
The impact of nickel and copper sulfates on the seeds germination and initial development stages of Scirpus representatives sprouts was studied. Wood–bulrush( Scirpus sylvaticus) seeds are less resistant to the effect of nickel and copper sulfates than those of great bulrush (Scirpus lacustris). A toxicity limit of salts of metals under investigation for germination of wood bulrush seeds was established in the range of 25 to 50 mg/l; this limit has not been established for great bulrush. The effect of nickel and copper sulfates on seedlings manifests in different ways; Copper (beginning from 1 mg/l) is more toxic to great bulbrush seeds and nickel (beginning from 10 mg/l) is more toxic to wood bulbrush. Common changes in the seedlings development are necrosis of root and leaves apices, growth retardation and lowered power of photogenesis.
Toxicity of methylene blue and proflavine to gastropod mollusks (Planorbis Corneus) was studied in chronic tests. Methylene blue produced a lethal action at a concentration of 1 mg/l and higher and proflavine up from 10 mg/l. A narrow transition range of concentrations between acute lethal to no effective was noted. Both toxicants authentically slowed down the growth and decreased the fertility of mollusks at concentrations of 0.1 mg/l and higher. A concentration of 0.01 mg/l of proflavine and methylene blue was recognized a maximum allowable for the test-object. Embryotropic effect was revealed for both compounds.
Toxicity of waste produced during oil extraction and containing hydrocarbons and natural radionuclides was studied using 7 bio-tests. Basing on average values of the factor LID 10 ( Lowest-inhibition dilution) calculated for every kind of waste, the tests used can be ranged as follows: test with Daphnia magna> test with Brachionus calyciflorus>test with Paramecium caudatum> test with Scenedesmus quadricauda>test with Raphanus sativus> test with Thamnocephalus platyurus> Ecolum. Waste ingredients determining toxicity are oil products. It was shown that toxicity of waste subject to thermal treatment to extract oil is greater as compared to the primary waste. All types of waste studied are hazardous to the environment and could be allocated to hazard class 3.
Experimental studies of sarin phytotoxic action in three different types of soil were carried out. For each type of soil the threshold and sub-threshold concentrations of the toxicant were determined basing on the harmfulness translocation index