The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
A comparative estimation of the information significance of endotoxicosis indicators and albumin luminescent test in forecasting results of acute intoxication by pshychotropic preparations was carried out. 513 patients with different severity of poisoning were examined. Blood hemotological and biochemical indicators were evaluated; concentrations of molecules of average mass were measured and albumin luminescent test was performed for two indicators: effective albumin concentration (EAC) and general albumin concentration (GAC). Investigations conducted revealed that the albumin luminescent test showing conformational changes in albumin molecules proved to be the most informative among indicators under investigation at the early resuscitation stage to detect patients with elevated risk of unfavorable outcome of the disease.
To identify a role of neurohormonal disorders in the development of psychoneurological effects from acute intoxications by organophosphorous agents in 125 workers who had worked at a former facility of neural paralytic weapons (Volgograd Open-Joint-Stock Company-VOAO Khimprom), the functional status of adrenal cortex , thyroid gland and sympathoadrenal system was studied. Detected same-type hormonal disorders in patients both with organic and functional lesions of the nervous system give reasons to believe that they are based on a common mechanism of forming responses of the regulating system to changes in the internal medium.
A chronic peroral administration of isoniazid or an isoniazid complex with pyrodoxin caused dose-dependent changes in the dehydrogenases and hydrolases activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In addition, the administration of isoniazid toxic doses led to the decrease of a percent number of cells with apoptosis morphologic signs induced by hyperthermia.
The isoniazid effect on myocardium was studied in an experiment on the model of an isolated isovolumically contracting rat heart. It was found out that the preparation itself does not pose a direct effect on the isolated rat heart which allows to assume that its metabolites are responsible for the cardiotoxic exposure but isoniazid increases the sensibility of the myocardium adrenoreceptors to adrenalin.
Far-East Federal University Pacific Ocean Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Vladivostok Data are quoted which characterize the echinochrome A effect on the organism of experimental animals in the doses range of 1 to 30 mg/kg body weight. An expressed toxicity of echinochrome A is demonstrated at its long administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg and its absence at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Data presented characterize effects on physical, hematological and biochemical indicators of the organism at a long exposure to the preparation. The conclusion is made that echinochrome A at a dose level of 30 mg/kg is hazardous to the organism and it seems necessary to conduct further investigations into the mode of action of the preparation at a dose of 1 mg/kg and lower.
A pre-clinic study of safety of transdermal plasters with hypoxene was performed. The application of the transdermal plaster with hypoxene at doses of 75 to 1500 mg/kg over two weeks did not cause the animals death. The application of deleterious doses of 150 to 1500 mg/kg results in decreasing growth of the general mass, changes in behavioral reactions, disturbances in renal functions, and the development of non-lethal pathologic changes in rat hemopoietic organs as well.
A planar amperometric choline oxidase biosensor was developed for a highly sensitive determination of choline and cholinesterases activity. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured using the choline oxidase biosensor in experiments on the AChE/BChE selective inhibition in vitro in mice blood samples as well as in experiments on AChE and BChE dose-dependent inhibition in vivo after mice were exposed to a model organophosphorous inhibitor. Biosensor measurements were validated by spectrophotometric methods.
The article describes a physical meaning of the concept «nucleus space» in quantitative microscopy and relationship between cell nucleus spaces and their volumes. Investigations were performed on preparations of PHA-stimulated human blood lymphocytes ready to be used in micronucleus tests. It was shown that the image of a cell nucleus is a projection of the nucleus on the slide glass along the microscope optical axis. The relationship between the cell nucleus volume and its space measured with the help of microphotography was evaluated and as a result, a direct power characteristic with exponent of 3/2 was obtained.
Toxicity evaluation of raw slurry liquetiers and grind intensifiers «Litoplast M», types 3 and 5 for fish was carried out for standard fish test-objects: one-day guppy juvenile (Poecillia reticulate Peters) and young-of-the-year carp (Cyprinus carpio L). To evaluate toxic effect to fish, the following indicators were used: median lethal concentrations (LC50) characterizing 50%-fold changes in fish survival over a determined 96 h period (LC50 96h). According to the outcome of toxicity assessment of the preparations, it was set that raw slurries liquetiers and grind intensifiers «Litoplast M», types 3 and 5 refer to low toxic substances.
The subject of the study was the lead absorption speed in the birds gastro-intestinal tract and accumulation of this element in birds organs and tissues with different morphological and functional characteristics. A minimal lead dose of 1.5 mg/kg duck live weight decreases its weight that recovers after its absorption in the stomach. The lead absorption and elimination from the organism couple with the dynamics in the body mass. The speed of these processes is directly interdependent and significantly differs in different organs and tissues A notably high accumulation and elimination speed is observed in claws, kidneys, liver, feathers and the least in fat, heart and muscles. An intensive removal of the lead minimal lethal dose from the body begins about 2 or 2.5 months after its elimination from the bird gastrointestinal tract.
Concentrations of synthetic surfactants in waste water can exceed 30g/l. The impact of synthetic detergents containing synthetic surfactants on sprouts of golden gram (Vigna radiata) and lentil (Lens culinaris ) was studied in biotests. Plants delayed in growth and development during the incubation period when the concentration of detergents Losk Automat Intensive, Dosia Color and Pemolux was of 0.5 g/l. Plants perished at a concentration of 5 g/l.