The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
The prevalence of acute poisonings in the Bashkortostan Republic decreased from 158.6 to 133.6 cases per 100 hundred of population over 2007-2010. In the etiological structure alcohol ( 52,0%) and medicinal preparations ( 27.4%) prevailed. CO and narcotics made 4.6% and 3.3% correspondingly The mortality caused by all kinds of acute poisonings in the Republic of Bashkortostan amounted to 17.8 per 100 hundred of population. The poisoning mortality structure consisted of 36.1% by alcohol, 22.8% by narcotic drugs and 19.3% by carbon monoxide. A national state program is recommended to prevent social and economic losses from acute poisonings.
A comparative assessment of the prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus ( Type 1 and type 2 and risk factors) has been carried out in Kola Lapland among the native population and newcomers. Exposure levels to POPs and the association of the diabetes status with exposure levels of natives to POPs were evaluated. According to predisposition criteria for diabetes mellitus, aboriginal population in remote settlements show a minimum risk. Obesity, elevated blood glucose levels and presence of diabetes itself are associated with a higher POPs concentrations in blood of examined people but statistically significant links were not revealed.
The activity of the enzyme paraoxonase -1 (PON1) was analyzed in 80 inhabitants blood serum in the Kirov Region taking into account the polymorphism of PON1 gene which results in amino acids substitution at PON1, Q192R and PON1 L.55M positions. The R allele rate in the population was 25.6% and the incidence rate of M allele amounted to 37.5%. The magnitudes obtained are close to those of incidence rate of these alleles in other europoid populations.
A survey of the current state of the issue of the bisphenol A safety level was conducted in response to violent discussions going on in western scientific publications whether this substance can pose a harmful effect at the exposure level recognized as safe in the USA and Europe. Different positions are cited as well as recent decisions made on this issue by international organizations dealing with human health protection. The bisphenol MAC in water accepted in Russia is compared to the magnitude of the safety level of the substance in water recommended by foreign scientists. A suggestion is made to adjust the MAC of bisphenol A in water.
The authors review in brief previously published results of their experimental investigations characterizing comparative toxicity of iron oxide Fe3O4 (magnetite} in the form of micro- and nanoparticles of different diameters as well as that of silver and gold nanoparticles of approximately equal diameter and activity of protective alveolar phagocytosis response induced by their pulmonary deposition. Based on these data and analysis of international experience, a general approach is recommended to the substantiation of acceptable workplace exposure limits for nanoparticles in particular a magnitude of 0.4 mg/m3 is proposed for the Tentative Safe Exposure Level (OBUV) of magnetite.
The dynamics of a number of biochemical indicators in rat blood was studied over 6 weeks after acute intoxication by soman (CD) and a substance of VX type (RVX). It was shown that besides activity changes in «classic» markers of intoxication by organophosphorous compounds such as blood cholinesterases, additive intoxication biochemical markers at early intoxication terms can be the activity of amino transferases, gamma glutamine transferase and paraoxonase-1. The dynamics of creatinine and urea can reflect the development of delayed pathology at later stages ( 4 to 6 weeks) after acute poisoning of animals by organophosphorous componds
A comparative analysis of alterations observed in the rat haemopoiesis system over 6 weeks was performed after acute intoxication by soman and RVX. The main alterations trends and critical terms of their occurrence were determined. The data obtained give a more complete idea of the mechanism of soman and RVX toxic effect non liked with the direct inhibition of cholinesterase and are of great importance for the practical medicine as they present a possibility to consider new directions in developing means of prophylaxis and treatment of intoxications and their consequences.
A toxic action of carbon monoxide (CO) on lymphocytes suspension in human blood was revealed. A long time presence in the CO medium (90 min) is followed by the death of 12.3% of investigated cells and this amount increases to 16% in a day time. The exposition of immunocompetent cells in the CO medium over 60 to 90 min induces the decrease of the amount of Fas receptors (CD95) on their surface and the enhancement of this effect was noted after 24 hours. It means that the cell receptor apparatus in samples under in vitro investigation changes under CO influence which testifies the disturbance of receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways.
It is shown that 30 min exposure of nematode C.elegans to acetaldehyde (0.08-1.2 mg/ml) causes reversible behavior disturbances and affects the worm organism (5 mg/ml and higher). IPE1 strain worms are more sensitive than those of N2 strain to low but not high acetaldehyde concentrations. Acetaldehyde induces a specific behavior disturbance (worms’ coiling). A 3 h exposure of C.elegans to acetaldehyde (600 μg/ml) causes behavior disturbances which persist after the acetaldehyde action on the organism stops and appear both as behavioral changes in some worms and qualitative changes in behavior responses to a repeated acetaldehyde action.
It was shown that sub-lethal concentrations of phenol ( 3mkg/l) and naphthalene ( 10 mkg/l) are toxic to fish ridney. The organ interstitial tissue and vessels appeared the most sensible to both toxicants at the tissue level, at the cell level these were promaximum segments epitheliocytes and granulocytes and at the sub-cellular level-mitochondria and phagosomes. Phenol has a more damaging effect compared to that of naphthalene which is testified by a different character and speed of the development of pathologic processes in the organ tissues and cells.