The Journal “Toksikologicheskiy vestnik” (Toxicological Review)
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The objective of the study presented was investigation of etiological aspects based on the number of patients admitted to hospital among population of the town of Omsk as consequence of acute poisonings of chemical etiology over the period of 2001 to 2010.The outcome of the study performed showed the increase in the number of patients hospitalized due to chemical poisonings. The toxicological situation is determined by alcoholic, medicated and narcotic poisonings. One of the prospective directions in investigations into morbidity caused by chemical poisonings in a large industrial center may be the determination of societal aspects of chemical poisonings which value consists in the long view studying of medico-social issues of population health in the context of chemical safety
In accordance with the Program of pre-clinic investigations into new medicinal preparations, allergenicity and immunotoxicity of N(-(5- hydroxynikotinoil)-L-glutamine acid, calcium salt (CSGA) was studied. The investigation of CSGA allergizing properties in guinea pigs showed that 5-fold intra-abdominal administration of the preparation at sensitizing doses of 3.35 and 6.7 mg/kg and at intra-abdominal administration of a challenge dose of 6.7 mg/kg on 14th and 21st days after administration did not produce an anaphylactic shock. The preparation in doses and schemes tested does not show any allergenic action in hypersensitivity III responses in guinea pigs and do not affect popliteal lymph nodes in mice. At tested doses of 6.7 and 13.4 mg/kg ( 10- and 20-fold therapeutic doses recommended for humans) CSGA does not impact on the number of anti body forming cells in spleen and on a delayed-type hypersensitivity response in mice. The data obtained testify the absence of CSGA adverse effects on humoral and cellular immunity and thereby the absence of the preparation immunotoxicity
Quantum chemical methods were used to show a formation process of the complex of polychlorinated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and phosphatidylholine with participation of electrons -systems. The formation of the complex leads to a significant alteration of the phosphatidylholine structure and redistribution of charges in atoms of a phosphatidylholine polar group. A picture of the space distribution of electrostatic potentials of the complex of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran with a molecule of phospa tidylholine was drawn up.
The information about history of teaching toxicology in high medical institutions is presented. It is shown that after a new Federal state education standard for higher professional education came into force, the training of students in toxicology at medical and pharmaceutical institutions has actually stopped. Factors of chemical safety in the present-day world and multivarious forms of toxic processes developing in the human organism under the influence of chemicals are analyzed. The issue of necessity of training physicians in toxicology was raised.
Pre-clinic investigations were carried out into acute and chronic toxicity of hexapeptide HLDF-6 identified as a fragment of the differentiation factor of human leucocytes at its intra-abdominal administration to CD-1 mice males and females and at intramuscular injections to CD rats males and females. A toxicity class of HLDF-6 was determined. It was stated that a multiple over 14 days intramuscular injections of HLDF-6 at a dose of 10mg/kg is nonhazardous, side effects were not noted.
A chemo-toxicological analysis is the most important to identify causes of poisoning. Thin-layer chromatograpy is very usable as analytical method because of its affordability, simplicity and expressivity. To increase authenticity of investigations carried out, it was shown that along with a thin-layer chromatography, a reversed-phase version could be used in screening certain pharmaceutical and chemical compounds,
Polyacrylamide with M,29000 Da and acrylamide anionic copolymers were synthesized with acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido -2-methylpropan-sulfonic acid having M, 20000-47000 Da and anionic copolymers with acrylic acid having molar masses 20000-47000 Da which contained 20.1-32.5. mol% of anionogenic groups. The toxicity of the polymers obtained was studied in vitro (cell culture of human fetal lung fibroblasts) and in vivo (white mice, intra-peritoneal administration)
The influence of chronic intoxication by manganese ions on carps young-of-the year blood was studied including general proteins and albumins, urea, general lipids and cholesterine, malonic dialdehyde, activity of catalase, ALT and AST, general antioxidant activity of blood serum. Found out deviations from standard values in indicators studied could be used as sensory markers.
Sodium bichromate produced a lethal effect on gastropods Planorbis corneus and Melanoides granifera at concentrations of 1 and 0.1 Cr mg/l correspondingly over a testing duration of up to 30 days. The toxicant Cr at a concentration of 0.1 mg/l inhibits the reproduction of Planorbis corneus. Planorbis corneus is a prospective test-object to test a durable effect of sub-lethal concentrations of potentially hazardous compounds on survival and reproduction whereas Melanoides granifera as a test-objet more sensitive to acute effects of toxic substances may be a promising object for toxicological screening.
Are discussed possibilities of using humic acids as components of magnetically active nano-hybrid de-toxicants of a new generation which are being developed to effectively remediate chemically contaminated soils. To this purpose an experimental evaluation of bio safety was conducted based on responses of standard test-organisms, allowable concentrations recommended for normal functioning of the biota representatives are set. Safe concentrations recommended for developing sorbents were established.
The content of mercury in bottom sediments of South Vietnam rivers and water reservoirs was investigated in 2009. Metal concentrations vary from 0.01 to 0.01 mg/kg dry weight. Lower Hg concentration is characteristic for Vietnam rivers and water reservoirs in comparison to water reservoirs in temperate and north latitudes.
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