Current Issue: NovDec, 2018, # 6
The article is devoted to study of the dynamics of hospital morbidity of the population of Omsk as a result of acute poisoning and effects of toxic substances in 2011-2017. The data used were obtained from the summary records of the Department of acute poisoning. The mathematical processing of the material has been carried out in the recalculation of 100 thousand of the corresponding population. The statistical processing of the material used traditional methods for calculating extensive and intensive indicators, the average error of the indicator, and the reliability of differences in the indicator of the Student’s t-criteria. During the period from 2011 to 2017 in Omsk there was a decrease in the level of hospital morbidity of the population as a result of acute poisoning and exposure to toxic substances by 4.5%. The rate of hospitalization among men was significantly higher than that among the female population by an average of 3.3 times. The toxicological situation has significantly changed, manifested by a statistically significant increase in the number of poisonings with synthetic psychoactive substances, while at the same time a statistically significant decrease in the level of hospital morbidity in alcoholic, medicinal, narcotic toxic effects, poisoning with corrosive poisons, pesticides, industrial and non-lubricated poisons. Information on the dynamics of the level of hospital morbidity of the population as a result of acute poisoning and exposure to toxic substances in Omsk for the period from 2011 to 2017 allows to determine the guidelines for organizational measures in the context of medical care to victims of this pathology, as well as directions for preventive work in the field of chemical safety of the population.
Keywords: acute poisoning, exposure to toxic substances, hospital morbidity
In the study conducted on laboratory animals (rats) toxic pulmonary edema (TPE) was simulated by inhalation of pyrolysis products of chlorinated paraffin-70 (CP-70). The average-lethal dose of CP-70 burned at 280 ÷ 350 ° C for 3 minutes is 8.1 ± 0.9 g and provides a concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the chamber at the level of 7325 [5850; 8460] ppm. Under these conditions exposure for 30 minutes led to an increase in the pulmonary rate (LC) in laboratory animals 24 hours after poisoning. The diagnosis of TPE was confirmed histologically by the signs of interstitial and alveolar edema, as well as arterial hypoxemia (TI = 204.5 [180; 228]) indicating respiratory failure. The death of animals was recorded 3 days after application of the pyrolysis products of CP-70. The simulated experimental TPE model can be used to search for the means of pathogenetic therapy of pulmonary toxicants poisoning.
Keywords: chlorinated paraffin, pyrolysis, hydrogen chloride, toxic pulmonary edema, pulmonary rate
The article presents the results of experimental toxicological studies on justification of ademetionine supportive therapy in order to prevent toxic liver damage when using antituberculosis drugs.
Keywords: hepatotoxicity, adverse reactions, hepatoprotector, ademetionine, antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, chemotherapy, supportive therapy
An injection form of the mineral complex consisting of a mixture of iron, zinc and copper nanopowders has been proposed. According to the results of studies the injection form of the drug based on metal nanopowders belongs to the V-VI class of practically non-toxic, relatively harmless drugs by Hodge and to the 5th class of toxicity in accordance with GOST 32644-2014.
Keywords: nanopowders of metals, iron, copper, zinc, acute toxicity, Twen80, propylene glycol
Experimental studies of the biochemical systems of white outbred rats in a single intoxication with fentanyl have been carried out. It has been established that acute intravenous intoxication with synthetic narcotic analgesics (fentanyl) leads to an intensification of lipid peroxidation processes indicating the development of oxidative stress. The peculiar biochemical changes of acute drug intoxication are revealed. They are represented by certain combinations of impaired biochemical parameters of blood serum.
Keywords: white rats, fentanyl, biochemical parameters
The research objective was to evaluate the morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in laboratory animals in conditions of acute and chronic intoxication with cypermethrin. Studies were performed on 140 male rats of the Wistar line. To simulate an acute intoxication cypermethrin was single injected into the stomach in a dose of half of LD50 followed by observation of the animals for 30 days. In the study of chronic intoxication cypermethrin was administered to rats in a dose of 1/100 of LD50. The experiment has lasted for 120 days. At the initial stage of the experiment the acute intoxication of rats with cypermethrin caused hyper- and then hyposecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. The content of progesterone in the blood serum and adrenal tissue decreased in animals. During the first three days after the poisoning there was an increase in the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum. To the end of the 7th day the concentration of this hormone in adrenal tissue decreased sharply and did not reach the control background after a month. Chronic intoxication with cypermethrin caused hypersecretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone for two months with the subsequent normalization of its level in the blood. The disturbance of progesterone synthesis in the adrenal glands during chronic intoxication is indicated by fluctuation of its concentration in blood 30 days after the start of the experiment. There was found high level of corticosterone in blood and adrenal glands for two months, and then it decreased to a control level. Morphological criteria for amplification and then suppression of adrenal function are the dimension of endocrine cells and their nuclei, the intensity of cell vacuolation suggesting the degree of lipids accumulation, and the severity of blood filling in the vessels of the beam and reticular zones.
Keywords: pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, adrenal glands, steroid hormones
An experimental assessment of the hazard of trotyl content in the soil has been carried out according to one of the most significant sanitary indicators of harm - the microbiocenosis. E. coli, micromycetes, actinomycetes and saprofitny bacteria grown up in the specific to each microflora medium were used as test organisms. It was found that the content of the toxicant in the soil at the levels of 20.0 and 10.0 mg/kg during the experiment revealed a significant growth of E. coli (up to 458.87 % relative to the control) indicating the inhibition of the process of self-purification of the soil. In addition, TNT in these concentrations contributed to a significant growth of micromycete colonies (up to 200.00%) indicating its accumulation in the soil, where fungi act as indicators (toxin accumulators). At the same time the substance at the level of 20.0 mg/kg caused inhibition of vital activity of actinomycetes reaching 50.27 %. The number of colonies of saprophytic microflora also significantly decreased in the soil mixture with the content of the chemical at the levels of 20.0 and 10.0 mg/kg. According to this type of general health hazard indicator the concentration of TNT – 10.0 mg/kg has been accepted as a threshold, and the value of 2.0 mg/kg – as inactive. The data obtained are taken into account in the subsequent development of the hygienic standard for this explosive compound.
Keywords: trotyl, soil, microbiocenosis, toxic effect, threshold and inactive concentration
The article is devoted to the results of the 10th anniversary scientific-practical conference «Anapa-2018» «Prospects for the use of innovative forms of fertilizers, plant protection and plant growth regulators in agricultural technologies» with the participation of leading experts and managers in the field of agrochemical production, specialized agencies, the Russian Academy Sciences, Rospotrebnadzor, and the RF Ministry of Agriculture. The conference discussed a wide range of topical issues on the use of new innovative forms of fertilizers, protection products, plant growth regulators and the technology of their use in agricultural production; issues of state registration, certification and declaration of pesticides and agrochemicals.
Keywords: agrochemical, innovative forms of fertilizers, crops, state registration
Dioctylterephthalate is a general-purpose plasticizer, has low toxicity, and does not irritate the mucous membranes of the eye and the skin; the maximum nonlethal dose (DL0) for dioctylterephthalate after intragastric administration is set at 10,000 mg/kg. Indicative safe exposure level for dioctylterephthalate in ambient air in urban and rural settlements is recommended at 0.5 mg/m3. Substance has low acute toxicity; the maximum inactive dose is set at 4 mg/kg. The substance has low solubility in water (0.4 μg/l), does not affect the dynamics of biochemical oxygen consumption. Threshold concentration in water on organoleptic characteristic is set at 0.25 mg/l as for low hazard substances.
Keywords: dioctylterephthalate, hygienic standards, toxicity