Current Issue: Sep–Oct, 2016, # 5


About substantiation of the national inventory of hazardous substances posing adverse developmental effects via lactation
Authors: Khamidulina Kh. Kh. , Dorofeeva E. V.

The international hazard classification for chemical substances and mixtures affecting the reproductive system covers also adverse developmental effects via lactation, along with assessment of their adverse effects on the male and female sexual function and fertility. Toxicological characteristics are reported that present hazard to breastfed children and are regulated at the domestic and international levels.

Keywords: chemical substances, toxicity, lactation


ABOUT UNIFORMITY OF THE PHENOMENOLOGY AND THE MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF SO-CALLED « JOINED» ACTION OF HAZARDS AND COMBINED TOXICITY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF A COMBIBATION OF THE FLUORIDE AND THE STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD)
Authors: Katsnelson B. A. , Sutunkova M. P. , Tsepilov N. A. , Panov V. G. , Varaksin A. N. , Gurvich V. B. , Minigalieva I. A. , Valamina I. E. , Makeyev O. H. , Meshcheryakova E. V.

Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to three groups of rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two out of these groups and two out of three groups were sham-injected with normal saline and were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field (SMF) for 2 or 4 hr a day, 5 times a week. Following the exposure, various functional and biochemical indices were evaluated along with histological examination and morphometric measurements of the femur in the differently exposed and control rats. The mathematical analysis of the combined effects of the SMF and fluoride based on the a response surface model demonstrated that, in full correspondence with what we had previously found for the combined toxicity of different chemicals, the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a tipological diversity depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on the dose and effect levels as well. From this point of view, the indices for which at least one statistically significant effect was observed could be classified as identifying (I) mainly single-factor action; (II) additive unidirectional action; (III) synergism (superadditive unidirectional action); (IV) antagonism, including both subadditive unidirectional action and all variants of contradirectional action.

Keywords: fluoride, static magnetic field, combined adverse action


MECHANISMS OF INCREASED RESISTANCE TO INFECTION IN THE EARLY PHASE OF SEPSIS IN MICE AFTER ACUTE INTOXICATION WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS
Authors: Zabrodskii P. F. , Maslyakov V. V. , Gromov M. S.

It was established in experiments on random-bred albino mice that the reduction of mortality of mice from sepsis and decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- , IL-1 , IL-6 ) concentrations in blood after acute intoxication with organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) is due to the implementation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway: activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors m1 and 7n-acetylcholine receptors of the monocyte macrophage system. The anti-inflammatory effect after acute intoxication with OPCs is also associated with excitation of the sympathetic nervous system, 2 adrenergic receptors on T-lymphocytes, macrophages and monocytes and the subsequent reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood.

Keywords: organophosphorus compounds, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors m1, 7n-acetylcholine receptor, 2 adrenergic receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines


PARTICULARITIES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PERSONS PROFESSIONNALLY EXPOSED TO BERYLLIUM
Authors: Stosman K. I. , Lukovnikova L. V.

An examination was performed of 50 employees at an enterprise where they were in professional contact with beryllium. In most workers, it was detected an increase of interleukine-8, interferon- , growing level of immunoglobulin E and circulating immune complexes. It was shown that the contact with beryllium compounds leads to the interferon- level growth only in women. In men, alterations are identified in the direction of increased concentrations of common immunoglobulin E and circulating immune complexes.

Keywords: beryllium, immune system, interleukins, immunoglobulin E, circulating immune complexes


ACUTE POISONING WITH DRUGS MAINLY AffECTING THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Authors: Belova M. V. , Ilyashenko K. K.

Based on examined reports 2010-2014 of the department of acute poisonings treatment at the N.V.Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Medicine and 1197 medical records of in-patients, a general characterization of poisoning by drugs affecting preferably the cardio vascular system is presented. Preparations and their combinations that are the most frequent causes of poisoning are detected; the age and gender structure of patients, poisonings causes and lethality are considered

Keywords: acute poisonings, drugs affecting the cardio vascular system


THE SENSITIVITY OF ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS TO ISONIAZID IN A TOXICOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT
Authors: Usov K. I. , Guskova T. A. , Yushkov G. G. , Mashanov A. V.

The article reports results of experimental investigations into the sensitivity of rats of different chronological age to the antituberculosous preparation «Isoniazid». A different rats sensitivity in relation to age is shown.

Keywords: antituberculous preparation isoniazid, chronobiology, chronological age, rational chemo-therapy, expermental studies


EFFECTIVENESS PROGNOSTICATION OF A COMBINED ANALGESIC FORMULATION DEPENDING ON QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION OF ITS COMPONENTS
Authors: Vengerovich N. G. , Yudin M. A. , Nikiforov A. S. , Sagalov G. S. , Vakhviyainen M. S. , Kuzmin A. A.

In experiments on rats, analgesic activity of fentanyl opioid receptor agonist and central 2-adrenomimetic dexmedetomidine as well as the character of their interaction at a combined administration were studied. Meaneffective anesthetic doses of the drugs in heat radiant tail flick test were 54.5 and 22.5 μg/kg correspondingly. Using izobolographic analysis, it was shown that for a combination with equal parts or with a greater part of fentanyl, the type of drug interaction can be characterized as potentiation. A model of prognostication of probability values of the analgesic effect development in relation to doses of combination components was elaborated and experimentally tested.

Keywords: analgesia, fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, izobolographic analysis, logistic regression


STUDY OF THE COMBINED INFLUENCE OF SODIUM THIOPENTAL AND DELTA SLEEP-INDUCING PEPTIDE ON ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN RATS
Authors: Shvetsov A. V. , Batotsyrenova E. G. , Dyuzhikova N. A. , Kashuro V. A. , Lapina N. V. , Dolgo-Saburov V. B. , Ivanov M. B.

A biochemical investigation was performed into activity of rat antioxidant defense enzymes at different time interval after administration of sodium thiopental and delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP). It was shown that thiopental coma was accompanied by a decreased level of superoxide dismutase ( 6 and 24 h after exposure) and increased level of caspase-3 ( 6 h after exposure) in the rat blood plasma. A pharmacological correction with DSIP induced a decrease of the level of superoxide dismutase ( 6 and 24 h after exposure), glutathione peroxidase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (after 6h).

Keywords: Keyword: sodium thiopental, thiopental coma, antioxidant defense, delta sleep-inducing peptide


SHUNGITE ACTION ON CRUSTACEANS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON POTASSIUM DICHROMATE TOXICITY
Authors: Dallakyan G. A. , Isakova E. F. , Gershkovich D. M.

It is shown that at the direct contact with shungite (10.00 and 100.00 g/l) as well as in the presence of shungite isolated on the dialysis sac (100.00 g/l), the survival and fertility of Daphnia magna decrease as compared to the control during 10 days of observation. Shungite effect is inter alia linked to a mechanical failure of Daphnia magna filtration apparatus. Concentrations of 0.01 and 0.10 g/l did not affect crustacean survival and fertility. Shungite in the centration of 0.01 g/l lowered toxic effect of potassium in concentrations of 0.005-0.02 g/l on both Ceriodaphnia and Daphnia magna.

Keywords: Shungute, Daphia magna, Ceriodaphnia affinis, potassium dichromate, survival, fertility


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Magazine Founder: FBEPH “Russian Register of Potentially Hazardous Chemical and Biological Substances”